The Reflection of the Artistic Image of Growing Up on Boys and Girls Ideas About the Future

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Abstract

The results of a study aimed at studying the ideas of growing up and the future in adolescents, boys and girls, are shown. The main purpose of the study was to identify the connection between life events that are significant for young people and their ideas about growing up, which is shown through the image of growing up in a feature film. The hypothesis was based on the assumption that the significance of life events in ideas about the future of boys/girls differs depending on the ideas of growing up based on the assessment of an artistic image. In total, the sample consisted of 1394 adolescents and young people aged 14 to 23 years (M=17; SD=2). Statistically significant differences were revealed in the ideas about the future of adolescents, boys and girls, with different types of ideas about growing up, revealed through an artistic image. Respondents who differ in the type of ideas about growing up show differences in the perspective of the future in relation to events related to "other people", "ideal objects" and the time period of the "open present". It was also found that there are differences in the significance of life events related to education, professional activity and communication among young people with different types of ideas about growing up based on an artistic image. These results may be useful for understanding the differences in the motivation of young people and for developing support and orientation programs in the process of growing up.

General Information

Keywords: emerging adulthood; boys and girls; artistic image; adolescence; the future; growing up; the idea of growing up; the idea of the future; the typology of ideas about growing up; the time perspective of the future

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/psyedu.2024160104

Received: 14.12.2023

Accepted:

For citation: Shilova N.P. The Reflection of the Artistic Image of Growing Up on Boys and Girls Ideas About the Future [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psychological-Educational Studies, 2024. Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 58–75. DOI: 10.17759/psyedu.2024160104.

Full text

Introduction

In the 21st century, post-industrial society provides young people with more opportunities to choose their future and places high demands on them in education, which affects the process of maturation. Changes in the socio-economic sphere lead to the disappearance of universal developmental tasks and the emergence of individualized trajectories of adulthood in young people. Modern individuals increasingly postpone social transitions such as graduation and career, marriage and parenthood, and remain financially dependent on parents often up to the age of 28 [6; 16].

In the past, financial independence and own professional activity, establishing one's own family and having children were perceived as objective indicators of adulthood [3]. Nowadays, the criteria of adulthood are becoming more subjective, researchers study the phenomenon of “delayed adulthood”, which was first described by J. Arnett. He called the transition from childhood to adulthood “emerging adulthood” [19; 20] and identified the following features of this period: exploration of one's own identity; instability; focus on oneself; experimentation; feeling of intermediacy between adolescence and adulthood [3].

The manifestation of adulthood criteria is highly culturally dependent [25]. In countries with individualistic cultures, independent decision-making and financial independence are considered to be signs of adulthood, while in collectivistic countries the values of community are more important than achieving personal fulfillment [3]. For example, Portuguese researchers confirmed that education, work/career and family/marriage are still significant motivations in the future time perspective and change throughout adulthood. As participants age, meaningful future events are less and less related to education and more and more related to material values and family relationships [23]. At the same time, work/career appears to be the most prominent factor, the importance of which does not change with the age of the participants or with their occupational status. This indicates the centrality of paid work and occupation in this age period. It may also be related to the psychological impact of the instability of the current macroeconomic situation and relates to thoughts about one's future [23; 25]. The ability to anticipate, plan and expect certain desired future achievements plays a crucial role in well-being, motivation and behavior in adolescence.

Orientation to the future becomes the main orientation of the personality, and the subject of interests and plans of young men and women becomes the problem of choosing and achieving professional growth. Becoming an adult turns out to be such a period in the life cycle in which people are involved in planning and anticipating the future [28]. Positive orientation to the future is necessary for a person because it is closely related to personality development and is a protective factor for mental health [27]. In fact, through future orientation, young men and women strive to achieve their goals, anticipate the consequences of their actions, and realize that their present forms the basis for building the future.

Modern research studies the period of personal development from adolescence to adulthood, including in the context of the existing contradiction of the social situation of boys’ (girls') development, which manifests itself in the phenomenon of “delayed adulthood”. At present, the issues related to the relationship between the features of perceptions of their own adulthood and the characteristics of the time perspective of the future remain unexplored. In addition, many modern researchers talk about the possibility of using artistic images in psychological research [1; 7; 10], but artistic images have not been used in studies of young men's and girls' perceptions of the future. Art, particularly cinema, is one of the ways to broadcast sociocultural images [10], it implies that the viewers' psychological understanding of the meanings embedded in the film allows them to more deeply realize their own ideas about what they have seen. M. Bakhtin [1] pointed out the ability to form meaning through internal dialog in the mind through the perception of an artistic work [10]. The plurality of options for interpreting an artwork allows us to intensify the work on producing our own perceptions [5, p. 368]. Thus, orienting on the artwork, a boy (girl) models the semantic context of his own experience (ontological and existential) and forms personal constructs about what he has seen [7].

Accordingly, we hypothesized that the significance of life events and ideas about the future in boys/girls differs depending on the ideas about growing up based on the evaluation of the artistic image.

The Sample and Method of the Study

The total number of participants was 1,394 aged 14 to 23 years (M=17; SD=2), including 578 males (41.46%) and 816 females (58.54%). Of these, 14-year-olds were 175, 15-16-year-olds were 433, 17-18-year-olds were 417, 19-21-year-olds were 294, and 22-23-year-olds were 93. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between life events significant for young people, their perceptions of the future, and their perceptions of growing up in adolescence based on the evaluation of artistic images.

The projective method “Growing up” (N.P. Shilova) [17] was used to study the ideas about growing up, and the method “Past, Present, Future” (A.L. Wenger, Y.M. Desyatnikova) [2] and the Motivation Induction Method (MIM) (J. Nytten, adapted by N.N. Tolstykh) [13; 14] were used to study the ideas about the future. As part of the “Past, Present, Future” method, the study participants listed five events from the past, present, and future that were most important to them (a total of 15 events). All respondents listed 20910 events grouped by themes using content analysis. Three thematic clusters were identified as occurring most frequently (13022 events):

- activity (including professional activities and studies);

- socializing with other people;

- entertainment (including games and recreation).

The version of the Motivation Induction Method (MIM) used included 20 unfinished sentences in positive form, such as: “I want to...” and 10 in the negative: “I don't want to...”, which respondents had to complete. The analysis was conducted using time and content codes, taking into account the recommendations of J. Nütten. Only the categories relevant to our sample were used. For the participants of this study, social time was formed from the periods of schooling, professional education, and the period of professional autonomy (work), and in the categories of calendar time, the “open present” was significant for them, associated with the desire of a person to have certain qualities, properties, knowledge, and skills that cannot be precisely defined in time. Within the framework of the content code, J. Nütten distinguishes four main categories of objects: “myself” (research participant); other people (relatives, friends, just people); ideal objects (freedom, science, love); and objects of nature that are significant for our sample.

The statements obtained by the “Past, Present, Future” and MIM methods were coded and converted into a dichotomous scale (presence or absence of a feature), and quantitative data showing the frequency of use of a particular feature by the respondent were used in further analysis. The range of possible scores for the “Past, Present, Future” technique is from 0 to 15, and for MIM - from 0 to 30.

The author's “Growing up” projective technique is based on M.M. Bakhtin's idea that the perception of an artistic image includes the definition of one's own attitude to the world, revealing personal meanings [1]. In our method, as an artistic image, we used fragments of V.V. Menshov's movie “Practical Joke”. Menshov's movie “Practical Joke” (1976). K.N. Polivanova and M.A. Shakarova, analyzing the material of feature films, came to the conclusion that in artistic texts there is a gradual blurring of clear boundaries between childhood and adulthood, which opens the uncertainty of the future [12]. The movie “Practical Joke” for the first time explicitly illustrates this blurring of the concept of adulthood. In our methodology, three fragments of the movie lasting from 1 to 5 minutes and 11 questions[1] to them were presented on a computer screen. The received answers were analyzed by means of content analysis. Several possible variants of answers1 for each question were identified, which were further analyzed as nominal variables.

The statistical significance of differences in perceptions of growing up was examined using Pearson's chi-square test (SciPy 1.11.0 statistical package) and hierarchical cluster analysis using Ward's minimum variance method (R statistical package). The consistency (internal reliability) of the tasks of the “Growing Up” method was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha. The statistical significance of differences in the perceptions of the future of the three selected types was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-criterion (statistical package SciPy 1.11.0), the effect size was measured using the d-Cohen coefficient (Python 3.8.0).

Results of the Study

At the first stage of the study, the “Growing up” method was used to study perceptions of growing up. The consistency (internal reliability) of the tasks of the technique was assessed by calculating the Cronbach's alpha value. Responses of all participants to all tasks of the “Growing up” methodology were included in the assessment, and its value amounted to 0.7163. Accordingly, the consistency (internal reliability) of the methodology tasks within the framework of the conducted research is acceptable.

Further, the respondents' answers were analyzed using cluster analysis. In this question, we relied on V.F. Petrenko's ideas that in psycholinguistics cluster analysis is used as a direct way of determining internal semantic relations [11]. Accordingly, it helped us at the first stage to divide all respondents into groups in which participants use similar semantic relations of words. This stage of analysis was conducted as an exploratory one, and three clusters were formed within it. The division into clusters was carried out on the basis of numerical estimates of answers to the questions of the “Growing up” method (the number of answers of a certain category given by a particular respondent). The first cluster included 377 (27%) respondents, the second cluster included 577 (41%), and the third cluster included 440 (32%).

In the next step, differences in the responses of the respondents who fell into the three clusters identified were examined. Differences were identified using standardized residuals and Pearson's chi-square criterion (see Table 1).

Table 1. Significance of Differences in the Answers to the Questions of the “Growing Up” Method (N=1394)

Question

Types

Answers (standardized residuals)

χ2

Р

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

3,31

-3,91

-4,31

7,51

 

75,15

0,000**

2

-2,81

2,11

2,91

-4,31

 

3

-0,2

1,6

1,0

-2,61

 

2

1

6,71

0,3

7,01

-10,11

 

139,20

0,000**

2

-5,81

0,3

-1,8

4,21

 

3

-0,3

-0,6

-4,81

5,31

 

3

1

5,41

-1,5

4,41

-7.41

 

92,07

0,000**

2

-2,21

-1,5

0,8

0,9

 

3

-2,81

3,01

-5,11

6,11

 

4

1

9,41

8,61

0,1

-5,61

-4,31

200,47

0,000**

2

4,61

-4,61

1,0

2,21

1,3

3

-4,11

-3,41

-1,1

2,91

2,71

5

1

8,71

-1,1

4,91

-9,41

-2,71

169,33

0,000**

2

-3,41

-0,5

1,7

0,2

1,7

3

-4,71

1,6

-6,51

8,81

0,8

6

1

5,81

10,11

-2,41

-9,61

-9,91

1303,70

0,000**

2

8,01

11,41

1,0

-11,91

-13,41

3

-14,01

-21,71

1,2

21,81

23,61

7

1

9,31

-2,71

6,01

-10,31

-1,9

183,83

0,000**

2

-3,41

2,81

-0,5

1,6

1,0

3

-5,31

-0,4

-5,21

8,21

0,9

8

1

21,71

1,0

-12,31

-9,11

-5,71

498,09

0,000**

2

11,11

-1,1

-9,11

4,31

1,2

3

-9,01

0,2

-5,71

4,21

4,11

9

1

10,91

10,21

-5,31

-15,11

-4,31

372,37

0,000**

2

-5,41

-3,81

4,21

5,31

2,51

3

-4,61

-5,71

0,7

8,81

1,5

10

1

12,51

11,21

-3,81

-10,31

-10,51

429,67

0,000**

2

-6,61

-4,21

-0,7

4,21

7,91

3

-5,01

-6,31

4,41

5,41

1,6

11

1

12,81

-6,81

1,0

-9,31

-1,0

288,37

0,000**

2

-7,31

-0,6

3,21

4,01

-1,1

3

-4,51

7,11

-4,41

4,71

2,11

Symbols. ** - differences are significant at the 0.0001 level; 1 value of the standardized residual is above the borderline (-2; 2).

Table 1 shows that the differences in responses to each question are significant at the < 0.0001 level; standardized residuals allowed us to identify “excess” or “missing” values of observations in the cells of the table, indicating that there is a relationship between the variables. With a standardized residual greater than zero, we can speak of a positive association, while a negative standardized residual indicates a negative association. Accordingly, the analysis of respondents' answers that fell into three selected clusters allowed us to describe three types of ideas about growing up: type 1 - “realization of meanings”, type 2 - “realization of adulthood” and type 3 - “time awareness”.

The type “realization of meanings” is characterized by interest in creativity, confidence in support from surrounding adults, in the importance of purposefulness. For these respondents, adulthood and their feelings about it consist in distinguishing success/failure and searching for the meaning of life.

For the type “realization of adulthood” success and achievements are important, also these respondents value the possibility to enjoy life, and the distinction of these two positions is connected for them with adulthood, and also adulthood and experiences about it consist in defining the concepts of childhood and adulthood.

The type of “time awareness” is characterized by confidence in the lack of understanding on the part of surrounding adults, in order to achieve goals, it is necessary to take into account the advice of elders. Success and achievements are important for these respondents, and at the same time it is important for them to enjoy life. The adult attitude to life is connected for this type with the distinction of future and present and understanding of time.

At the next stage of the study, the differences in the image of the future were studied depending on the features of perceptions of adulthood, identified on the basis of the perception of the artistic image of adulthood. Descriptive statistics on the data obtained with the help of techniques studying the image of the future are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Descriptive Statistics on Three Important Thematic Blocks of Significant Life Events According to the “Past, Present, Future” Method and According to the Criteria of Time Perspective of the Motivational Induction Method, n=1394

Indicators

Mean

Standard Error

Median

Mode

Standard Deviation

Sample Variance

Excess

Asymmetry

Minimum

Maximum

Reliability Level (95,0%)

Action

4,36

0,06

4

5

2,38

5,64

−0,07

0,29

0

14

0,13

Communication

3,26

0,07

3

3

2,45

5,99

0,01

0,64

0

12

0,13

Entertainment

1,75

0,05

1

0

1,95

3,82

5,36

1,79

0

15

0,10

Learning in Schhol

0,70

0,05

0

0

1,95

3,82

33,2

4,97

0

21

0,10

Vocational Training

1,79

0,08

1

0

2,80

7,86

10,2

2,81

0

20

0,15

Professional Autonomy

1,66

0,06

1

0

2,40

5,74

16,9

3,42

0

19

0,13

Open Present

3,88

0,07

4

4

2,75

7,58

0,6

0,76

0

15

0,15

Historical Future

0,77

0,04

0

0

1,37

1,87

10

2,8

0

10

0,07

I Myself

13,40

0,12

14

15

4,54

20,70

0,16

−0,52

0

22

0,24

Other People

3,82

0,08

3

0

2,98

8,90

1,07

0,88

0

21

0,16

Objects of Nature

0,22

0,02

0

0

0,93

0,86

245

13,2

0

19

0,05

Ideal Objects

2,03

0,06

1

0

2,14

4,59

4,98

1,76

0

17

0,11

The analysis of the obtained data allows us to state with a reliability level of 95% that the average number of statements ranged from 0.22 (objects of nature) to 13.4 (myself). The standard deviation of the distribution of the sample mean for all categories ranged from 0.93 (objects of nature) to 4.54 (myself). The coefficient of asymmetry has a positive value for all categories except the content category “I myself”, which indicates the presence of right-sided asymmetry, respectively, for the category “I myself” - left-sided. The positive value of the kurtosis indicates the presence of an island shaped distribution for all categories of analysis, except for significant events in the category of business (study and professional activity). The marginal sampling error ranged from 0.05 (objects of nature) to 0.24 (myself). The range of variation in different categories of statements reached from 10 to 22.

Differences in the significance of life events between respondents depending on their perceptions of growing up based on the artistic image are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Differences in the Significance of Life Events Between Respondents Depending on their Perceptions of Growing Up Based on an Artistic Image (N=1394)

Significant Life Events

Mann-Whitney U-test, Cohen’s d-criterion

Realization of meanings (n=377)

Realization of adulthood (n=577)

Realization of meanings (n=377)

Time awareness (n=440)

Realization of adulthood (n=577)

Time awareness (n=440)

Study and Professional Activity

125093,5, p=0,000***

d=0,2351

102888, p=0,000***

d=0,3961

115124,5, р=0,010*

d=−0,169

Communication

122586, р=0,001***

d=0,2011

91874,5, р=0,007**

d=0,159

129724, p = 0,545

d = 0,047

Entertainment

112019,5, р=0,420

d=0,055

89258, р=0,053

d=0,161

120746, р=0,171

d=−0,103

Symbols. * - differences are significant at the 0.05 level; ** - differences are significant at the 0.01 level; *** - differences are significant at the 0.001 level; 1 average effect size.

 

Thus, respondents assigned to the “realization of meanings” type of ideas about adulthood are less likely than others to identify academic/professional events as significant (mean: “realization of meanings” = 3.81, “realization of adulthood” = 4.38, “time awareness” = 4.76), and were also less likely than respondents of the “realization of adulthood” type to identify contacts with other people as significant (mean: “realization of meanings” = 2.93, “realization of adulthood” = 3.42).

Differences in the significance of temporal categories between respondents depending on their perceptions of growing up based on artistic imagery are presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Differences in the Significance of Time Categories Between Respondents Depending on their Perceptions of Growing Up Based on an Artistic Image (N=1394)

Categories of Temporal Perspective

Mann-Whitney U-test, Cohen’s d-criterion

Realization of meanings (n=377)

Realization of adulthood (n=577)

Realization of meanings (n=377)

Time awareness (n=440)

Realization of adulthood (n=577)

Time wareness (n=440)

I myself

104149, р=0,337 d=0,103

76819,5, р=0,924 d=0,044

129333,5, р=0,310 d=0,067

Other people

126950,5, p=0,000***

d=0,4271

100556,5, p=0,000***

d=0,5161

117516,5, р=0,115 d=−0,075

Ideal objects

118171,5, p=0,000***

d=0,2151

95394, p=0,000***

d=0,3081

115326,5, р=0,037* d=−0,087

Open present

121677,5, p=0,000***

d=0,3321

94737, p=0,000***

d=0,3861

121744,5, р=0,516

d=−0,059

Learning in school

103259,5, р=0,326 d=0,000

77740, р=0,600 d=−0,065

126381,5, р=0,625 d=0,064

Vocational training

111201,5, р=0,004** d=−0,026

80239, р=0,212 d=−0,076

132919,5, р=0,061 d=0,060

Prefessional autonomy

107084, р=0,077 d=−0,082

81743, р=0,087 d=−0,097

124465,5, р=0,959 d=0,020

Symbols. * - differences are significant at the 0.05 level; ** - differences are significant at the 0.01 level; *** - differences are significant at the 0.001 level; 1 mean effect size.

Respondents assigned to the “realization of meanings” type of ideas about growing up use the content category “other people”, the content category “ideal objects” and the time category “open present”, which is not limited to a certain time of life, in the temporal perspective of the future less often than others.

Discussion of the Results of the Study

Based on the data obtained, it can be said that young people's ideas about the future and significant events in their lives are related to their ideas about growing up, which are formed through the evaluation of artistic images of growing up.

The identified typology of ideas about growing up, including the following types: “realization of meanings”, “realization of adulthood” and “time awareness”, is based on J. Arnett's ideas that modern characteristics of growing up have become more individualistic and depend on the cultural heterogeneity and variability of this period of life.

At the same time, we show that in answering the question “how has the growing up of modern young men and girls changed?” it is important to take into account not only the influence of culture on the importance of the criteria of growing up [8; 15; 19; 20], but also the peculiarities of the perception of the cultural image of growing up that we have identified. Accordingly, the description of perceptions of growing up by modern young men and girls, given by us in the framework of the formation of the typology, becomes an important addition. For respondents of the type “realization of meanings” adulthood and the experiences associated with it consist in the distinction of success or failure and the search for the meaning of life. For the type “realization of adulthood” adulthood and experiences about it are connected with the definition of the concepts of childhood and adulthood. The type “time awareness” connects adult attitude to life with the distinction of future and present and understanding of time.

The obtained differences in perceptions of adulthood based on the perception of the artistic image of adulthood fit logically into the studies confirming that perceptions of adulthood in adolescence are related to meaningful perceptions of adult ages [23; 26; 28; 29; 30; 31; 33].

Given that institutionalized forms of growing up in general and the ideal form as a representation of the future in particular are dissolving in the diversity of modern developmental practices [12], we understand that the life scenario no longer resembles a non-alternative “rolling rut” in which everything was in strict order: getting education, finding a job, and creating a family. In this context, the revealed links between the differences in the perceptions of growing up and the perceptions of the future in adolescence become important for understanding the motivation of modern youth. Thus, the respondents who are referred to the type of ideas about adulthood “realization of meanings” less often than others emphasize as significant events related to study and profession, and also less often emphasize the importance of contacts and communication with other people in comparison with representatives of the type “realization of adulthood”.

These connections highlight the characteristics of the life path imagined in adolescence, which the researchers have already noted earlier [9], and significantly supplement their conclusions that the length of the imagined future life depends on significant life events in the professional sphere and in the sphere of family relations.

Young people who are representatives of the type of maturation, figuratively called “realization of meanings”, in the temporal perspective of the future less often than others use the content categories “other people” and “ideal objects” and the temporal category “open present”, which is not limited to a certain time of life. This result correlates with research showing the links between contemporary boys/girls' perceptions of growing up and their vision of their future, including the development of a temporal perspective. Approaches based on this connection aim to establish a positive vision of the present, future, and past through analyzing experiences, searching for meaning in life, and forming life plans and goals [21; 22; 24]. This means that a young man (girl) building his/her life path has determined the ultimate life meanings and has an idea of his/her future socially defined events and roles in various spheres of life (family, career, education, social life) [4; 18; 32].

Findings

As a result of the study, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. Three types of perceptions of adulthood in adolescence based on the evaluation of artistic images were identified:

- for respondents of the type “realization of meanings” adulthood and experiences concerning it consist in the distinction of success/failure and the search for the meaning of life;

- for the “realization of adulthood” type, adulthood and feelings about it consist in defining the concepts of childhood and adulthood;

- for the type of “time awareness” adult attitude to life is connected with the distinction of future and present and understanding of time.

  1. Respondents, for whom ideas about growing up are connected with “realization of meanings”, less often than others emphasize as significant events directed to study/profession, and also less often than respondents, for whom ideas about growing up are connected with “realization of adulthood”, emphasize as significant contacts with other people.
  2. Respondents, for whom ideas about growing up are connected with “realization of meanings”, in the temporal perspective of the future less often than others use the content category “other people”, the content category “ideal objects” and the temporal category “open present”, which is not limited to a certain time of life.

Conclusion

A limitation of the present study is the lack of data on the relationship of the identified phenomena with the age of the respondents. The discovered connections of the perceptions of the future with the perceptions of growing up, formed on the basis of the evaluation of the artistic image of growing up, are of value for psychologists of educational organizations developing programs of support and orientation in the process of growing up. The revealed differences in the use of the categories of time perspective and the significance of life events for one's future depending on the perceptions of growing up based on the evaluation of artistic images are a subject for further study in order to investigate the dependence of the findings on the age and gender of respondents.


[1] 1. Which of the characters' thoughts did you find interesting? (answers: 1 - about creativity, 2 - about not having enough time, 3 - about achieving success, 4 - no interesting thoughts).

  1. Were there any situations in your life similar to the situation of the boys? (answers: 1 - feeling of support from adults, 2 - feeling of incomprehension from adults, 3 - striving to rely only on oneself, 4 - realization of the plan despite the lack of faith of adults).
  2. Have you experienced the same attitude from adults as in the 1st fragment? (answers: 1 - feeling of support from adults, 2 - feeling of misunderstanding from adults, 3 - striving to rely only on oneself, 4 - realization of the plan despite the lack of faith of adults).
  3. How will the future life of the main character turn out? (2nd fragment) (answers: 1 - rejection, 2 - good, because the hero is purposeful, 3 - the hero will achieve his goal, 4 - will live an ordinary life, 5 - good, provided that he takes into account the advice of his elders).
  4. How do you evaluate the ideas in the situations from the 2nd fragment? (answers: 1 - feeling supported by adults, 2 - feeling misunderstood by adults, 3 - there are no such examples, 4 - realization of the plan despite the lack of faith of adults, 5 - striving to rely only on oneself).
  5. What are the similarities between the opinions of the characters in the movie and your friends? (answers: 1 - similar to Igor, 2 - similar to the teacher, 3 - presence of optimism in my friends, 4 - my friends believe that life will teach a lesson and life is a struggle, 5 - my friends discuss life success and achievements).
  6. Give examples of adults voicing the same concerns as the teacher in the 2nd movie excerpt (answers: 1 - feeling supported by adults, 2 - feeling misunderstood by adults, 3 - no such examples, 4 - realizing what they had planned despite lack of adult faith, 5 - striving to rely only on themselves).
  7. How are you similar to the heroes? (3rd fragment) (answers: 1 - I am like Oleg, 2 - I am like my father, 3 - I also strive for success and achievements in life, 4 - I strive to enjoy life, I don't think that achievements are the most important thing, 5 - everyone is right in their own way, both positions are close to me).
  8. What is the adult attitude of the characters to life in the 3rd fragment? (answers: 1 - in defining the concepts of success/failure, 2 - in searching for the meaning of life, 3 - in getting pleasure from life/achievement, 4 - in understanding the significance of the future/now and the time of life in general, 5 - in distinguishing the concepts of childhood/adulthood).
  9. What are the disagreements of the characters of the movie (Oleg and his father) in the 3rd fragment? (answers: 1 - in defining the concepts of success/unsuccess, 2 - in searching for the meaning of life, 3 - in getting pleasure from life/achievements, 4 - in understanding the significance of the future/now and the time of life in general, 5 - in distinguishing the concepts of childhood/adulthood).
  10. In what ways were you/your friends' attitudes towards life similar to the 3rd fragment? (answers: 1 - in the desire to rest, 2 - in the desire to work/study, 3 - it was not, 4 - its own position unrelated to the plot, 5 - in demonstrating a more adult position than that of others).

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Information About the Authors

Natalia P. Shilova, PhD in Psychology, Deputy Head of Department, Federal Service for Supervision of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Institute of Education of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1511-840X, e-mail: npshilova@outlook.com

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