Out-Group Trust of the Russians in Multicultural Regions of Russia: the Role of Values and Intercultural Contacts

178

Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship of values and intercultural contacts with intergroup trust among the Russian ethnic minority in two multicultural regions of Russia — the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A), the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR). Background. The study of out-group trust is important for multicultural societies. Out-trust contributes to the harmonization of intercultural relations, overcoming unstable social interactions and leads to important public benefits, including personal and social well-being. However, in Russia, trust was studied among the ethnic majority and in the context of acculturation problems. Study design. We conducted a socio-psychological survey. Data collection took place in towns and villages of North Ossetia-A and KBR, where the Russians live compactly. We used the “snowball” method. Respondents received blank questionnaires, completed them and returned them to the researcher. Participants. The sample included 593 Russian respondents. In RSO-A, the sample included 291 re¬spondents (29% of men, average age M=44,6); in KBR the sample included 302 respondents (36% of men, average age M=42,7). Measurements. We used Personal Values Questionnaire — Revised (Schwartz), the Yamagishi scale of trust, the scale of intercultural friendship contacts from the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project (MIRIPS). Results. The results showed that in RNO-A, Openness to change values, Conservation values were positively associated, and Self-Enhancement values were negatively related to out-group trust through intercultural contacts only. Intensive intercultural contacts of Russians also moderated the positive relationship between Openness to change values and out-group trust. In KBR, Self-Enhancement values had direct and indirect (through intercultural contacts) negative effects on out-group trust only. Intercultural contacts also moderated the negative relationship between Self-Enhancement values and out-group trust. Conclusions. In general, the results showed that the characteristics of the sociocultural context determine the significance of different values for out-group trust. In the situation of favorable intercultural relations and in “the close” religious context (RNO-A), if the Russians interact intensively with the dominant ethnic group representatives, then their values focused on the self-direction thought and action, openness to the world increase out-group trust. In “the distant” religious context in the situation of interethnic tension (KBR), if the Russians interact intensively with dominant ethnic groups representatives, then their values of achievement, power, “preserving their own face” reduce out-group trust.

General Information

Keywords: values, intercultural contacts, intergroup trust, Russian ethnic minority, RNO-A, KBR

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2021120405

Funding. The reported study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project number 19-18-00169.

Received: 20.02.2020

Accepted:

For citation: Galyapina V.N. Out-Group Trust of the Russians in Multicultural Regions of Russia: the Role of Values and Intercultural Contacts. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2021. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 71–92. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2021120405. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Galushchak D.V. K analizu etnicheskikh osobennostey kabardintsev, balkartsev i russkikh [Elektronnyy resurs] [On the analysis of ethnic characteristics of Kabardians, Balkars and Russians]. Izvestiya Yuzhnogo federal’nogo universiteta. Psikhologicheskiye nauki = Bulletin of the Southern Federal University. Psychological sciences, 2005, pp. 76—79. URL: https://cyberleninka. ru/article/n/k-analizu-etnicheskih-osobennostey-kabardintsev-balkartsev-i-russkih-2 (Accessed 12.04.2017). (In Russ.).
  2. Gutsunayeva S.V. Strategii mezhetnicheskogo vzaimodeystviya osetin i russkikh, prozhivayushchikh v respublike Severnaya Osetiya — Alaniya. Avtoref. dis. … kand. psikhol. nauk. [Strategies for interethnic interaction between Ossetians and Russians living in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania. PhD (Psychology) Thesis]. Saint-Petersburg, 2010. 21 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Demograficheskiye i etnicheskiye problemy Severnogo Kavkaza i puti ikh resheniya [Demographic and ethnic problems of the North Caucasus and ways to solve them]. Moscow: Fond perspektivnykh issledovaniy «Bastion», 2012. 129 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Denisova G.S., Ulanov I.P. Russkiye na Severnom Kavkaze: analiz transformatsii sotsiokul’turnogo statusa [Russians in the North Caucasus: An Analysis of the Transformation of Sociocultural Status]. Rostov-on-Don: Yuzhnyy Federal’nyy universitet, 2003. 234 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Zabolotnaya G.M. Fenomen doveriya i yego sotsial’nyye funktsii [The phenomenon of trust and its social functions]. Vestnik RUDN = Bulletin of RUDN, 2003, no 4, pp. 79-85. (In Russ.).
  6. Itogi Vserossiyskoy perepisi naseleniya 2010 g. v 11 T. T. 11. Svodnyye itogi vserossiyskoy perepisi naseleniya [Elektronnyy resurs] [The results of the 2010 Russian Population Census at 11 T. T. 11. Summary of the Russian Population Census]. Moscow, 2012. URL: http://www.gks.ru/ free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/vol11pdf-m.html (Accessed 12.04.2017). (In Russ.).
  7. Lebedeva N.M. Etnopsikhologiya: uchebnik i praktikum dlya akademicheskogo bakalavriata [Ethnopsychology: textbook and workshop for academic baccalaureate]. Moscow: Yurayt Publ., 2014,. pp. 508—-546. 420 p. (In Russ).
  8. Pavlenko O. «Natsional’noye gosudarstvo» i «etnicheskoye men’shinstvo»: problemy sootnosheniya obzor sovremennoy zarubezhnoy istoriografii [“National state” and “ethnic minority”: the problem of correlation review of modern foreign historiography], 1998, pp. 175—192. URL: https://rusneb.ru/catalog/000202_000006_1235142/ (Accessed 20.04.2020). (In Russ.).
  9. Sinanov B.A. Otsenka sovremennogo sostoyaniya mezhetnicheskikh otnosheniy v respublike Severnaya Osetiya — Alaniya (po materialam ekspertnogo oprosa) [Assessment of the current state of interethnic relations in the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania (based on the materials of an expert survey)]. Sovremennyye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya = Modern problems of science and education, 2015. Vol. 2-3. URL: http://science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=23634 (Accessed 20.04.2020) (In Russ.).
  10. Tatarko A.N. Vzaimosvyaz’ doveriya s akkul’turatsionnymi ustanovkami (na primere ukraintsev v Rossii i russkikh v Latvii) [The relationship of trust with acculturation attitudes (for example, Ukrainians in Russia and Russians in Latvia)]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-historical psychology, 2016. Vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 76—84. DOI:10.17759/chp.2016120108 (In Russ.).
  11. Tatarko A.N., Lepshokova Z.Kh., Dubrov D.I. Doveriye kak moderator svyazi otnosheniya k etnicheskomu mnogoobraziyu i akkul’turatsionnykh ozhidaniy prinimayushchego naseleniya [Trust as a moderator of the relationship between ethnic diversity and acculturation expectations of the host population]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2019. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 92—114. DOI:10.17759/sps.2019100106 (In Russ.).
  12. Tishkov V.A. Men’shinstvo etnicheskoye [Ethnic minority] Sotsiologicheskaya entsiklopediya [Sociological encyclopedia]: v 2 t. Moscow: Mysl., 2003. P. 617. URL: https://terme.ru/termin/ menshinstvo-etnicheskoe.html (Accessed 17.04.2020). (In Russ.).
  13. Tkhagazitov YU.M., Shaozheva N.A. K probleme prognozirovaniya mezhetnicheskikh konfliktov na Severnom Kavkaze [To the problem of forecasting interethnic conflicts in the North Caucasus]. Gumanitarnyye, sotsial’no-ekonomicheskiye i obshchestvennyye nauki [Humanitarian, socio-economic and social sciences]. 2014. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/k-probleme-prognozirovaniya-mezhetnicheskih-konfliktov-na-severnom-kavkaze (Accessed 17.04.2020). (In Russ.).
  14. Shvarts Sh., Butenko T.P., Sedova D.S., Lipatova A.S. Utochnennaya teoriya bazovykh individual’nykh tsennostey: primeneniye v Rossii [Refined theory of basic individual values: application in Russia]. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki = Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, 2012. Vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 43—70. (In Russ.).
  15. Bilodeaua A., Whitec S. Trust among recent immigrants in Canada: levels, roots and implications for immigrant integration. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 2016. Vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1317— 1333. DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2015.1093411
  16. ˇCehaji´c S., Brown R., Castano E. Forgive and forget? Antecedents and consequences of intergroup forgiveness in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Political Psychology, 2008. Vol. 3, pp. 351—362. DOI:10.2307/20447126
  17. Cook K.S. Trust in Society. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 2001.
  18. Cook K.S., Yamagishi T., Cheshire C., Cooper R., Matsuda M., Mashima R. Trust Building via Risk Taking: A Cross-societal Experiment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 2005. Vol. 68, pp. 121—42.
  19. Davidov E., Meuleman B., Billiet J., Schmidt P. Values and support for immigration: a cross-country comparison. Eur. Sociol. Rev., 2008. Vol. 24(5), pp. 583—599.
  20. Dinesen P.T. Where You Come From or Where You Live? Examining the Cultural and Institutional Explanation of Generalized Trust Using Migration as a Natural Experiment. European Sociological Review, 2013. Vol. 29, pp. 114—28.
  21. Dinesen P.T., Sønderskov K.M. Ethnic diversity and social trust. A critical review of the literature and suggestions for a research agenda. In Uslaner (Hg.) (Ed.). The Oxford Handbook on Social and Political Trust. Oxford University Press, 2018.
  22. Doerschler P., Jackson P.I. Do Muslims in Germany Really Fail to Integrate? Muslim Integration and Trust in Public Institutions. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2012. Vol. 13, pp. 503—23.
  23. Ferrin D.L., Bligh M.C., Kohles J.C. Can I Trust You to Trust Me? A Theory of Trust, Monitoring, and Cooperation in Interpersonal and Intergroup Relationships. Group & Organization Management, 2007. Vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 465—499.
  24. Flanagan C. Trust, Identity, and Civic Hope. Applied Developmental Science, 2003. Vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 165—171.
  25. Guenzi P., Georges L. Interpersonal trust in commercial relationships: Antecedents and consequences of customer trust in the salesperson. European Journal of Marketing, 2010. Vol. 44, no. 1/2, pp. 114—138.
  26. Hardin R. Trust and Trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002.
  27. Hayes A.F. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. N.Y.: Guilford Publications, 2013. 507 p.
  28. Heckmann F. Ethnischen Minderheiten, Voile und Nation. Frankfurt am Main., 1992. P. 8—56.
  29. Helliwell J.F., Wang S. Trust and Well-Being. Working Paper. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010. Vol. w15911.
  30. Hooghe M., Reeskens T., Stolle D., Trappers A. Ethnic diversity and generalized trust in Europe: a cross-national multilevel study. Comp. Pol Stud., 2009. Vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 198—223.
  31. Hu L.T., Bentler P.M. Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 1999. Vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1—55.
  32. Jost J.T., Glaser J., Kruglanski A.W., Sulloway F.J. Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychol. Bull., 2003. Vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 339—352.
  33. Kenworthy J.B., Voci A., Ramiah A.A., Tausch N., Hughes J., Hewstone M. Building Trust in a Postconflict Society: An Integrative Model of Cross-group Friendship and Intergroup Emotions. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2016. Vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1041—1070. DOI:10.1177/0022002714564427
  34. Kramer R.M., Carnevale P.J. Trust and Intergroup Negotiation / In Brown R., Gaertner S. (Eds). Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 2001, pp. 431—50.
  35. Ljunge M. Trust Issues: Evidence on the Intergenerational Trust Transmission among Children of Immigrants. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2014. Vol. 106, pp. 175—96.
  36. Maoz I., Ellis D. Intergroup Communication as a Predictor of Jewish-Israeli Agreement with Integrative Solutions to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: The Mediating Effects of Outgroup Trust and Guilt. Journal of Communication, 2008. Vol. 58, pp. 490—507.
  37. McKeown S., Psaltis C. Intergroup Contact and the Mediating Role of Intergroup Trust on Outgroup Evaluation and Future Contact Intentions in Cyprus and Northern Ireland Peace and Conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 2017. Vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 392—404. DOI:10.1037/pac0000275)
  38. Mewes J. Inequality and Trust Re-Visited. Working Paper, 2012. June 16. URL: http://www. soc.umu.se/digitalAssets/103/103912_11_2012_mewes.pdf. (Accessed 20.11.2019).
  39. Molm L., Takahashi N., Peterson G. Risk and Trust in Social Exchange: An Experimental Test of a Classical Proposition. American Journal of Sociology, 2000. Vol. 105, pp. 1396—427.
  40. Putnam R. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. N.Y.: Simon and Schuster, 2000. 544 p.
  41. Rotter J.B. Generalized Expectancies for Interpersonal Trust. American Psychologist, 1971. Vol. 26, pp. 443—52.
  42. Sagiv L., Schwartz S.H. Value priorities and readiness for out-group social contact. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 1995. Vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 437—448.
  43. Sidanius J., Pratto F. Social Dominance: an Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression. Cambridge university press, 1999.
  44. Smith S.S. Race and Trust. Annual Review of Sociology, 2010. Vol. 36, pp. 453—75.
  45. Stolle D., Harell A. Social capital and ethno-racial diversity: learning to trust in an immigrant society. Polit. Stud., 2013. Vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 42—66.
  46. Suppan A. Die osterreichischen Volksgruppen. Wien, 1983. P. 10—43.
  47. Tam T., Hewstone M., Kenworthy J.B., Cairns E. Intergroup Trust in Northern Ireland. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2009. Vol. 35, pp. 45—59.
  48. Turner R.N., West K., Christie Z. Out-group trust, intergroup anxiety, and out-group attitude as mediators of the effect of imagined intergroup contact on intergroup behavioral tendencies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2013. Vol. 43, pp. E196—E205. DOI:10.1111/jasp.12019
  49. Van der Linden M., Hooghe M., de Vroome T., Van Laar C. Extending trust to immigrants: Generalized trust, cross-group friendship and anti-immigrant sentiments in 21. European societies PLoS One, 2017. Vol. 12, no. 5, pp. e0177369. Published online 2017. May 8. DOI:10.1371/journal. pone.0177369
  50. Wilkes R., Wu C. Ethnicity, Democracy, Trust: A Majority-Minority Approach. Social Forces, 2018. Vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 465—494. DOI:10.1093/sf/soy027
  51. Wilson H.F. Passing propinquities in the multicultural city: the everyday encounters of bus passengering. Environ. Plann, 2011. Vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 634—649.
  52. Wu C., Wilkes R. Durable Power and Generalized Trust in Everyday Social Exchange. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 2016. Vol. 113, no. 11, pp. E1417.
  53. Yamagishi T. Trust and Social Intelligence. The Evolutionary Game of Mind and Society / Yamagishi T. (Ed.). Tokyo: Tokyo University Press, 1998. P. 107—171.
  54. Ziller C. Ethnic diversity, economic and cultural contexts, and social trust: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from european regions, 2002—2010. Soc. Forces, 2015. Vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 1211—1240.
  55. Ziller C., Wright M., Hewstone M. Immigration, social trust, and the moderating role of value contexts. Social Science Research, 2019. Vol. 79, pp. 115—126.

Information About the Authors

Victoria N. Galyapina, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of School of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chief Researcher at the Center for Sociocultural Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4122-6455, e-mail: vgalyapina@hse.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 391
Previous month: 10
Current month: 7

Downloads

Total: 178
Previous month: 10
Current month: 1