Stereotyping as a Weapon of Cold War Propaganda: Military Masculinity in Soviet Songs

190

Abstract

Objective. The article examines how the Cold War propaganda employed the male stereotype in the representations of the Soviet and U.S. militaries. Background. The relevance is determined by necessity to study the methods and resources, which are used in creating the image of the enemy. For the first time the Soviet songs have been analyzed as a weapon of the Cold War propaganda. Study design. The research hypothesis was that the Soviet songs about the militaries contained two components related to masculinity. First, the identified characteristics of the militaries have been compared to the male stereotype per se; then – to the stereotype of Soviet masculinity. Measurements. The research materials consist of 190 Soviet songs (1946-1991) which contain the images of Soviet and U.S. militaries. Content analysis serves as the research method. The units for analysis: features and social roles attributed to a man and to a Soviet man. Results. The role of gender stereotyping in representations of “us” and “them”, in creating the image of the enemy has been examined on the data of the songs. The influence of the Soviet ideology on correcting male stereotype has been investigated. It was established that two modes of male stereotype used for creating the representations of Soviet and US militaries: both “us” and “them” were estimated through the light of stereotype of “real man”, on the one hand (strength, courage, self-control, and others), and through the light of stereotype of Soviet man, on the other hand (collectivism, patriotism, mercy, and others). Main conclusions. First, Song served one of resources in creating the image of Enemy; second, gender stereotyping functioned as an important method of the Cold War propaganda; third, main regularities of social stereotyping have been confirmed: “us” were represented in more detailed and more positive ways, then “them”.

General Information

Keywords: stereotyping, gender stereotypes, masculinity, propaganda, soviet song, Cold war, image of enemy

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2022130406

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation, project number 22-18-00305, https://rscf.ru/en/project/22-18-00305/ at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia.

Received: 16.07.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Riabova T.B. Stereotyping as a Weapon of Cold War Propaganda: Military Masculinity in Soviet Songs. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2022. Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 90–106. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2022130406. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Vepreva I.T., Uong Min' Tuan. Strategiya pozitivnoi mediatizatsii voiny vo V'etname (po materialam «Pravdy» i «Komsomol'skoi pravdy» 1965 g.) [Strategy of positive mediatization of war in Vietnam (based on newspapers "Pravda" and "Komsomol'skaya pravda", 1965)]. Kommunikativnye issledovaniya = Communication studies, Vol. 7(2), pp. 351–364. (In Russ.). DOI:10.26170/pl19-01-11
  2. Gyunter Kh. Poyushchaya Rodina: Sovetskaya massovaya pesnya kak vyrazhenie arkhetipa materi [Singing Motherland: Soviet mass song as an expression of the mother archetype]. Voprosy literatury = Russian Studies in Literature, 1997, no. 4, pp. 46–61. (In Russ.).
  3. Ivanova E.Yu., Berezhnoi D.A. Obraznaya sfera sovetskoi estradnoi pesni serediny XX veka kak otrazhenie sotsiokul'turnykh tsennostei sovetskogo obshchestva [The Figurative Sphere of the Soviet Variety Song of the Mid-20th Century As a Reflection of the Sociocultural Values of Soviet Society]. Uchenye zapiski = Scientific notes, 2020. Vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 122– (In Russ.).
  4. Kletsina I.S. Samorealizatsiya lichnosti i gendernye stereotipy [Self-realization of person and Gender stereotypes]. In: A.A. Rean, L.A. Korosteleva (Eds). Psikhologicheskie problemy samorealisatsii lichnosti [Psychological problems of self-realization of Person]. Saint-Petersburg: Saint Petersburg university, 1998. Vol. 2, pp. 88–202. (In Russ.).
  5. Kon I.S. Muzhchina v menyayushchemsya mire [Man in changing world]. Moscow: Vremia Publ., 2009. 494 p.
  6. Labunskaya V.A. Obraz vraga v mezhlichnostnom obshchenii [Image of Enemy in interpersonal communication]. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, Vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 52–64. (In Russ.).
  7. Proshchanie [Elektronnyi resurs] [Farewell]. Stikhi iz vospominanii Bataeva S.G. [Poems from S.G. Bataev’s memory]. URL: http://www.nhat-nam.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?t=68. (Accessed 13.07.2022). (In Russ.).
  8. Riabov O.V. «Mister Dzhon Lankaster Peck»: amerikanskaya maskulinnost' v sovetskom kinematografe Kholodnoi voiny (1946–1963) [«Mr. John Lancaster Peck»: American masculinity in Soviet Cold War cinema (1946–1963)]. Zhenshchina v rossiĭskom obshchestve = Woman in Russian society, 2012, no. 4, pp. 44–57. (In Russ.).
  9. Riabova T.B. Gendernye stereotipy v politicheskoi sfere sovremennogo rossiiskogo obshchestva: sotsiologicheskii analiz. Diss. dokt. sotsiol. nauk. [Gender stereotypes in contemporary Russian Politics: sociological analysis. Dr. Sci. (Sociiology). diss]. Nizhniy Novgorod, 2009. 385 p. (In Russ.).
  10. Riabova T.B., Pankratova E.V. “Cold warriors” glazami sovremennykh rossiian: retseptsiya kinoobrazov maskulinnosti amerikanskikh voennykh perioda Kholodnoi voiny [The “Cold warriors” in the eyes of contemporary Russians’: today’s reception of Cold War cinematic images of U. S. militaries’ masculinity]. Zhenshchina v rossiiskom obshchestve = Woman in Russian society, 2019, no. 4, pp. 29–40. DOI:10.21064/WinRS.2019.4.3 (In Russ.).
  11. Stepanova E.A. “Vse prokhodit. Ostaetsya Rodina – to, chto ne izmenit nikogda”: obraz Rodiny v sovetskoi pesne [“Everytning passes. Only Motherland remains, the one which would never be unfaithful”: image of motherland in Soviet song]. Zhurnal sotsial'no-gumanitarnykh issledovanii = Labyrinth. Journal of Social and Humanitarian Studies, 2015, no. 4, pp. 28–42. (In Russ.).
  12. Khrushchev N.S. Doklad i zaklyuchitel'noe slovo na vneocherednom XXI s"ezde KPSS 27 yanvarya i 5 fevralya 1959 g. O kontrol'nykh tsifrakh razvitiya narodnogo khozyaistva SSSR na 1959−1965 gody [Control Figures for the Economic Development of the U.S.S.R. for 1959-1965: Report Delivered at the 21st Extraordinary Congress of the CPSU. January 27 and February 5, 1959]. Мoscow: Gospolitizdat, 1959. 174
  13. Schmitt K. Ponyatie politicheskogo [The concept of the Political]. Voprosy sotsiologii = Sociology Issues, 1992, no. 1, pp. 35– (In Russ.).
  14. Yudin K.A. Akkordy “Kholodnoi voiny”: muzyka kak resurs dlya reprezentatsii “obraza drugogo” v anglo-amerikanskom kinematografe [Chords of the “Cold War”: Music as a resource for representing the “image of the other” in Anglo-American cinema]. Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Ser.: Istoriya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya = Izvestiya of Saratov University. History. International Relations, Vol. 21(3), pp. 353–358. DOI:10.18500/1819-4907-2021-21-3-353-358 (In Russ.).
  15. Ashmore R.D., Del Boca F.K., Wohlers A.J. Gender Stereotypes. In: Ashmore R.D., Del Boca F.K. (Eds.). The Social Psychology of Female-Male Relations: A Critical Analysis of Central Concepts. Orlando: Academic Press, 1986, pp. 69–
  16. Basow S.A. Gender Stereotypes and Roles. Pacific Grove, 1992. 447 p.
  17. Bourdieu P. Masculine Domination. Stanford: Stanford University press, 2001. 133 p.
  18. Broverman I., Vogel S.R., Broverman D.M., Clarkson F.E., Rosenkrantz P.S. Sex Role Stereotype: A Current Appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 1972. Vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 59–78.
  19. Davenport L. Jazz Diplomacy: Promoting America in the Cold War Era. University press of Mississippi, 208 p. DOI:10.14325/mississippi/9781604732689.001.000
  20. Diesen G. The Foundational Stereotypes of Anti-Russian Propaganda [Elektronnyi resurs]. In: Diesen G. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore, 2022, pp. 45–82. DOI:10.1007/978-981-19-1468-3_3
  21. Dowling R. Communism, Consumerism, and Gender in Early Cold War Film: The Case of Ninotchka and Russkii vopros. Aspasia: The International Yearbook of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern European Women’s and Gender History, 2014. Vol. 8, pp. 117–132. DOI:3167/ASP.2014.080103
  22. Enloe C.H. The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley, etc.: University of California Press, 1993. 239 p.
  23. Goldstein J.S. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 523 p.
  24. Hinton P.R. Stereotypes, Cognition, and Culture. East Sussex, 2000. 208 p.
  25. Keen S. Faces of the Enemy: Reflections of the Hostile Imagination. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986. 200
  26. May E.T. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. New York: Basic Books, 1988. 290 p.
  27. Oakes P.J., Haslam S.A., Turner J.C. Stereotyping and Social Reality. Oxford, 1994. 255 p.
  28. Oppenheimer L. The development of enemy images: A theoretical contribution. Peace and Conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 2006. Vol. 12(3), pp. 269–292. DOI:1207/s15327949pac1203_4
  29. Riabov O. The Symbol of the Motherland in the Legitimation and Delegitimation of Power in Contemporary Russia. Nationalities Papers, 2020. Vol. 48(4), pp. 752– DOI:10.1017/nps.2019.14
  30. Riabov O., Riabova T. The Images of Urban Space in Constructing the Cold War Enemy: US Skyscrapers in Soviet Animation. Studies in Russian and Soviet Cinema, Vol. 2, pp. 122–138. DOI:10.1080/17503132.2021.1905792
  31. Schmelz P.J. Introduction: Music in the Cold War. Journal of Musicology, 2009. Vol. 26, pp. 13–16. DOI:1525/JM.2009.26.1.3
  32. Schneider D.J. The psychology of New York; London: The Guilford press, 2004. 704 p.
  33. Shaw T., Youngblood D.J. Cinematic Cold War: The American and Soviet Struggle for Heart and Minds. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 2010. 301
  34. Shorten R. The Cold War as comparative political thought. Cold War History, 2018. Vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 385–408. DOI:1080/14682745.2018.1434508
  35. Stereotypes and Stereotyping. In Macrae C.N., Stangor C., Hewstone M. (Eds.). New York: Guilford Press, 1996. 462 p.
  36. Zur O. The love of hating: The psychology of enmity. History of European Ideas, 1991. Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 345–369. DOI:1016/0191-6599(91)90004-I

Information About the Authors

Tatiana B. Riabova, Doctor of Sociology, Professor at the Department of Political Science, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5270-7911, e-mail: riabova2001@inbox.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 616
Previous month: 43
Current month: 15

Downloads

Total: 190
Previous month: 7
Current month: 12