Dynamics of Indicators of Perfectionism and Symptoms of Emotional Distress in the Russian Student Population over the Past Ten Years: Cohort Study

1162

Abstract

According to the research data, the number of adolescents and university students with emotional maladjustment is growing up along with increasing levels of perfectionism. In this study, the authors compared indices of perfectionism in two samples of Russian university students that completed the Three-Factor Perfectionism Inventory (N.G. Garanyan, A.B. Kholmogorova) in 2005—2008 (N=449) and 2017—2018 (N=194). The comparison revealed that levels of the most destructive perfectionism aspects associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms have significantly increased. Overall, the means on subscale corresponding to socially prescribed perfectionism have increased by 34%, whereas the indices of perfectionistic thinking have grown twice. According to multifactorial psychosocial model of affective spectrum disorders (A.B. Kholmogorova, N.G. Garanyan, 1998), the cult of success and achievements in modern society is inextricably linked to this growth of perfectionism indices. The data obtained and their interpretations correspond closely to the studies of researchers from western countries. The necessity to create a healthy learning environment and establish psychological service in education’s system is confirmed.

General Information

Keywords: students, perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, perfectionistic cognitive style, depression, anxiety, psychosocial factors

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2019150305

For citation: Kholmogorova A.B., Garanyan N.G., Tsatsulin T.O. Dynamics of Indicators of Perfectionism and Symptoms of Emotional Distress in the Russian Student Population over the Past Ten Years: Cohort Study. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2019. Vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 41–50. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2019150305. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Volikova S.V., Galkina A.M., Kholmogorova A.B. Roditel’skii perfektsionizm — faktor razvitiya emotsional’nykh narushenii u detei, obuchayushchikhsya po uslozhnennym programmam [Parental perfectionism — a factor in the development of emotional disorders in children enrolled in complex programs]. Voprosy psikhologii [ Questions of psychology], 2006, no. 5, pp. 23—32.
  2. Volikova S.V., Kalina O.G., Kholmogorova A.B. Validizatsiya oprosnika detskoi depressii M. Kovak [Validation of the questionnaire children’s depression M. Kovak]. Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of psychology], 2011, no. 5, pp. 121—132.
  3. Volikova S.V., Kholmogorova A.B. Proyavleniya emotsional’noi dezadaptatsii u shkol’nikov iz razlichnykh sotsial’nykh grupp [Manifestations of emotional maladjustment in students from different social groups]. In Obukhova L.F. (eds.), Drugoe detstvo [ Other childhood]. Moscow: MGPPU [MSUPE], 2009, pp.108—118.
  4. Vygotskii L.S. Sobranie sochinenii: v 6 t. T. 2. Problemy obshchei psikhologii [Collected Works: in 6 vol. Vol. 2. Problems of General psychology]. Davydov V.V. (eds.). Moscow: Pedagogika, 1982. 504 p.
  5. Garanyan N.G. Perfektsionizm i vrazhdebnost’ kak lichnostnye faktory depressivnykh i trevozhnykh rasstroistv. Avtopef. diss. dokt. psikhol. nauk. [Perfectionism and hostility as personal factors of depressive and anxiety disorders. Dr. Sci. (Psychology) Thesis]. Moscow, 2010. 42 p.
  6. Garanyan N.G., Yudeeva T.Yu. Struktura perfektsionizma u patsientov s depressivnymi i trevozhnymi rasstroistvami [The Structure of perfectionism in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological journal], 2009. Vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 93—102.
  7. Garanyan N.G., Kholmogorova A.B., Yudeeva T.Yu. Perfektsionizm, depressiya i trevoga [Perfectionism, depression and anxiety]. Moskovskii psikhoterapevticheskii zhurnal [Moscow psychotherapeutic magazine], 2001, no. 4, pp. 18—48. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  8. Garanyan N.G., Kholmogorova A.B., Yudeeva T.Yu. Faktornaya struktura i psikhometricheskie pokazateli oprosnika perfektsionizma: razrabotka trekhfaktornoi versii [Factor structure and psychometric performance of the questionnaire of perfectionism: development of a three-factor version]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [ Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2018. Vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 8—32. doi:10.17759/cpp.2018260302. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  9. Garanyan N.G., Shchukin D.A. Chastye sotsial’nye sravneniya kak faktor emotsional’noi dezadaptatsii studentov [Frequent social comparisons as a factor of emotional maladjustment of students]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [ Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2014. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 182—206. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  10. Gorchakova V.A., Landa L.A., Matytsyna V.A., Krasnova V.V., Klimenkova E.N., Kholmogorova A.B. Psikhologicheskaya dezadaptatsiya u studentov sistemy srednego i vysshego professional’nogo obrazovaniya: sravnitel’nyi analiz [Psychological disadaptation of students of secondary and higher education: a comparative analysis]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2013, no. 4, pp. 5—15. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  11. Nasledov A.D., Kiseleva L.B. Adaptatsiya «Oprosnika perfektsionizma» dlya diagnostiki perfektsionistskikh ustanovok studentov pervogo kursa tekhnicheskikh vuzov [Adaptation of the “Questionnaire of perfectionism” for the diagnosis of perfectionist attitudes of first-year students of technical universities]. Vestnik St. Petersburg University [Bulletin of St. Petersburg University], 2016. Vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 44—64.
  12. Kholmogorova A.B. Integrativnaya psikhoterapiya rasstroistv affektivnogo spectra [Integrative psychotherapy of affective spectrum disorders]. Moscow: Medpraktika-M, 2011. 480 p.
  13. Kholmogorova A.B., Volikova S.V. Osnovnye itogi issledovanii faktorov suitsidal’nogo riska u podrostkov na osnove psikhosotsial’noi mnogofaktornoi modeli rasstroistv affektivnogo spektra [Elektronnyi resurs] [Main results of studies of suicide risk factors in adolescents on the basis of psychosocial multifactor model of affective spectrum disorders]. Meditsinskaya psikhologiya v Rossii: elektron. nauch. zhurn. [Medical psychology in Russia: electronic scientific journal], 2012, no. 2. Available at: http://www.medpsy.ru/mprj/archiv_global/2012_2_13/ nomer/nomer11.php (Accessed: 19.03.2019).
  14. Kholmogorova A.B., Garanyan N.G., Gorshkova D.A., Mel’nik A.M. Suitsidal’noe povedenie v studencheskoi populyatsii [Suicidal behaviour in a student population]. Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2009, no. 3, pp. 101—110. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  15. Kholmogorova A.B., Garanyan N.G Mnogofaktornaya model’ depressivnykh, trevozhnykh i somatoformnykh rasstroistv kak osnova ikh integrativnoi psikhoterapii [Multifactorial model of depressive, anxious and somatoform disorders as a basis of their integrative psychotherapy]. Sotsial’naya i klinicheskaya psikhiatriya [ Social and clinical psychiatry], 1998, no. 1, pp. 94—102.
  16. Kholmogorova A.B., Garanyan N.G., Evdokimova Ya.G., Moskova M.V. Psikhologicheskie faktory emotsional’noi dezadaptatsii u studentov [Psychological factors of emotional disadaptation of students]. Voprosy psikhologii [ Questions of psychology], 2009, no. 3, pp. 16—26.
  17. Kholmogorova A.B., Garanyan N.G. Nartsissizm, perfektsionizm i depressiya [Narcissism, perfectionism and depression]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2004, no. 1, pp. 18—35. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  18. Kholmogorova A.B., Gerasimova A.A. Psikhologicheskie faktory problemnogo pol’zovaniya internetom [Psychological factors of problematic use of the Internet]. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [ Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2019, no. 3 (v pechati). (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  19. Khorni K. Nevroticheskaya lichnost’ nashego vremeni [The Neurotic personality of our time]. Moscow: Akademicheskii Proekt, 2009. 208 p. (In Russ.).
  20. Yudeeva T.Yu. Perfektsionizm kak lichnostnyi faktor depressivnykh i trevozhnykh rasstroistv. Diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. [Perfectionism as a personality factor of depressive and anxiety disorders. Ph. D. (Psychology) diss.]. Moskva, 2007. 275 p.
  21. Yasnaya V.A., Enikolopov S.N. Perfektsionizm: istoriya izucheniya i sovremennoe sostoyanie problem [Perfectionism: the history of the study and the current state of the problem]. Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of psychology], 2007, no. 4, pp. 157—168.
  22. Blader J. Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Increased Among Young Adults. Why? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2018. Vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 18— 19. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.11.005
  23. Breslau J. et al. Sex differences in recent first-onset depression in an epidemiological sample of adolescents. Translational psychiatry, 2017. Vol. 7, no. 5, p. 1139. doi:10.1038 / tp.2017.105
  24. Etherson M., Smith M. How perfectionism can lead to depression in students [Elektronnyi resurs]. Theconversation.com, 2011. Available at: https://theconversation.com/how-perfectionism-can-lead-to-depression-in-students-97719 (Accessed: 13.07.2019).
  25. Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L. Dimensions of perfectionism in unipolar depression [Elektronnyi resurs]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1991. Vol.100, no. 1, pp. 98—101. doi:10.1037 / 0021-843X.100.1.98
  26. Hewitt P.L., Flett G.L. Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology [Elektronnyi resurs]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991. Vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 456— 470. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.456
  27. Hill A., Curran T. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Burnout: A Meta-Analysis [Elektronnyi resurs]. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2015. Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1—58. doi: 10.1177 / 1088868315596286
  28. Curran T., Hill A.P. Perfectionism Is Increasing Over Time: A Meta-Analysis of Birth Cohort Differences From 1989 to 2016 [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psychological Bulletin. Advance online publication, 2017. doi:10.1037/bul0000138
  29. Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), 1990. 456 p. doi:10.1037/t05500-000
  30. Lifei Wang, et al. Depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in western china: An epidemiological survey of prevalence and correlates [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psychiatric Research, 2016. Vol. 246, pp. 267—274. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.09.050
  31. Smith M., Sherry S, McLarnon M. Why does socially prescribed perfectionism place people at risk for depression? A five-month, two-wave longitudinal study of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model [Elektronnyi resurs]. Personality and Individual Differences, 2018. Vol. 134, pp. 49—54. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.04
  32. Stoeber J., Otto K. Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges [Elektronnyi resurs]. Personality and social psychology review, 2006. Vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 295—319. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr1004_2
  33. Stoeber J. The 2×2 model of perfectionism: A critical comment and some suggestions [Elektronnyi resurs]. Personality and Individual Differences, 2012. Vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 541—545. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.04.029
  34. Van der Stel J. Perfectionisme leidt tot angst en burn-out [Elektronnyi resurs]. Ggznieuws.nl. 05.02.18. Available at: https://www.ggznieuws.nl/home/perfectionisme-leidt-tot-angst-en-burnout (Accessed: 19.03.2019).

Information About the Authors

Alla B. Kholmogorova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Leading Researcher, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry (A Branch of the National Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology), Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5194-0199, e-mail: kholmogorova@yandex.ru

Natalia G. Garanyan, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Associate Professor, leading researcher at the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, member of the editorial board of the journal "Consultative Psychology and Psychotherapy", Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1227-2682, e-mail: garanian@mail.ru

Tikhon O. Tsatsulin, PhD Student of the Faculty of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: ttsatsulin@yandex.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 2098
Previous month: 32
Current month: 7

Downloads

Total: 1162
Previous month: 16
Current month: 1