Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs and Typically Developing Children in Joint Problem-Solving (With Tasks on Understanding Multiplicative Relations as an Example)



This article presents results of an experimental study on inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) and normally developing children in the process of joint solving of learning tasks depending on the type of interaction and relationships between children and between children and adult. The hypothesis was that the inclusion and development of higher mental functions in children with SEN can occur in specially organized learning interactions with other children and the adult that contribute to the emergence and development of child-adult communities. It is shown that the interactions between participants, the processes of communication and mutual understanding that develop under these conditions mediate the transition from the orientation on the objective characteristics of the problem to the analysis of the very ways of joint problem-solving. The relationship of the processes revealed in our study (means of interaction, communication and mutual understanding) characterise 4 types of child-adult communities and also serves as an integral indicator of the children’s inclusion in joint problem-solving. The results of the study are important for understanding the processes that affect the inclusion of children with SEN in learning situations, as well as for understanding the sources and mechanisms of mental development in social interactions. It is shown that the evolving interactions and relationships between the children and adults promote the development of higher mental functions in the participants of these interactions.

General Information

Keywords: development, joint learning activity, inclusive education, social interaction, communication, mutual understanding

Journal rubric: Empirical Research


For citation: Konokotin A.V. Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs and Typically Developing Children in Joint Problem-Solving (With Tasks on Understanding Multiplicative Relations as an Example). Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2019. Vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 79–88. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2019150408. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Andrey V. Konokotin, PhD in Psychology, lecturer of UNESCO Department of Cultural and Historical Psychology of Childhood, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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