Interrelation of Attachment and Coping Behavior In Adults



Attachment as the ability to form long-term close relationships provides protection and support at all ages, frees from anxiety and tension, and directly affects well-being and health. This study explored the relations between attachment and coping styles and hardiness in adults. The participants — 127 adults aged 18—77 — filled out the Relationships Questionnaire (Bartholomew, Horowitz, 1998), Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Fraley, Waller, Brennan, 2000), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker, 1990), and Hardiness Survey (Leontiev, Rasskazova, 2006; based on Maddi’s Personal Views Survey). The results showed that securely attached adults used coping aimed at problem solving and avoiding anxious thoughts less frequently. Fearful attachment style was related to the reduction of effort to change the situation, it increased the feeling of helplessness and disregard of vigorous activity. As for individuals with avoidant attachment anxiety they experienced in close relationships increased the feelings of rejection and the disposition to security.

General Information

Keywords: type of attachment, anxiety, avoidance, coping behavior, hardiness.

Journal rubric: Empirical Researches


Funding. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant no. 18-013-01101 А.

For citation: Kuftyak E.V. Interrelation of Attachment and Coping Behavior In Adults. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2021. Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 28–43. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2021290103. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Avdeeva N.N. Teoriya privyazannosti: sovremennye issledovaniya i perspektivy [Child-parent relationship therapy: Child-parent interaction therapy of Sheila Eyberg (on foreign sources)] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya psikhologiya = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2017. Vol. 6 (2), pp. 7—14. Available at: (Accessed 20.10.2019). DOI:10.17759/jmfp.2017060201. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  2. Borisova N.M., Shapovalenko I.V. Lichnostnye determinanty sovladayushchego povedeniya v srednem vozraste [Personal determinants of coping behavior in middle age] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological- Educational Studies, 2018. Vol. 10 (3), pp. 115—125. Available at: https://psyjournals. ru/psyedu_ru/2018/n3/Borisova_Shapovalenko.shtml (Accessed 10.10.2019). DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2018100310. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  3. Vasilenko T.D., Zemzyulina I.N., Selin A.V., et al. Sem’ya i psikhosomaticheskoe zdorov’e rebenka [Family and psychosomatic health of the child]. Vestnik RFFI. Gumanitarnye i obshchestvennye nauki = RFBR Journal. Humanities and social sciences], 2017, no. 1, pp. 112—121.
  4. Kazantseva T.V. Privyazannost’ i pomogayushchee povedenie [Attachment and helping behavior]. In Gurieva S.D., Pochebut L.G. (eds.) Sotsial’naya psikhologiya: istoriya i sovremennost’ [Social psychology: History and modernity]. Moscow: Infra-M, 2021, pp. 97—103.
  5. Kazantseva T.V. Sotsial’no-psikhologicheskie determinanty mezhlichnostnoi privyazannosti. Avtopef. diss. kand. psikhol. nauk. [Socio-psychological determinants of interpersonal attachment. Ph. D. (Psychology) Thesis]. Saint Petersburg, 2011. 22 p.
  6. Quinn V. Prikladnaya psikhologiya [Applying psychology]. Saint Petersburg: Piter, 2000. 560 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Kryukova T.L. Metody izucheniya sovladayushchego povedeniya: tri koping-shkaly [Methods of studying coping behavior: three coping scales]. Kostroma: KGU im. N.A. Nekrasova; Avantitul, 2010. 64 p.
  8. Kuftyak E.V. Semeino-pokolencheskoe issledovanie: teoriya i praktika [Family generation research: Theory and practice]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya “Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika” = Kostroma State University Bulletin. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Social Kinetics], 2014. Vol. 20 (1), pp. 64—68.
  9. Kuftyak EV. Sovladayushchee povedenie supruzheskoi pary: dinamika i struktura [Coping behavior of married couple: Dynamics and structure]. Psikhologicheskii Zhurnal, 2010. Vol. 31 (3), pp. 17—24.
  10. Kuftyak E.V., Zadorova Yu.A. Privyazannost’ doshkol’nikov k materi i ee vliyanie na psikhicheskoe zdorov’e [Preschoolers attachment to the mother and its impact on mental health] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaya i spetsial’naya psikhologiya = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2020. Vol. 9 (1), pp. 169—185. Available at: (Accessed 19.12.2020). DOI:10.17759/cpse.2020090109 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  11. Leont’ev D.A., Rasskazova E.I. Test zhiznestoikosti [Test of hardiness]. Moscow: Smysl, 2006. 63 p.
  12. Mukhamedrakhimov R.Zh., Tuman’yan K.G., Chernego D.I., et al. Privyazannost’ u detei s opytom institutsionalizatsii. Chast’ I. Osobennosti privyazannosti u detei, prozhivayushchikh v organizatsiyakh dlya detei-sirot [Attachment in children with experience of institutionalization. Part I. Attachment in children living in institutions]. Psikhologicheskii Zhurnal, 2020. Vol. 41 (5), pp. 77—85. DOI:10.31857/ S020595920010419-6
  13. Zhuravlev A.L., Sergienko E.A. (eds.). Printsip razvitiya v sovremennoi psikhologii [The principle of development in modern psychology]. Moscow: IP RAN, 2016. 479 p.
  14. Fedorova T.A., Zelikson D.I. Izuchenie fenomena partnerskikh otnoshenii v zarubezhnoi psikhologii [The phenomenon of partner relationships in foreign psychological studies] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya psikhologiya = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2017. Vol. 6 (1), pp. 60— 70. Available at: (Accessed 10.10.2019). DOI:10.17759/jmfp.2017060108 (In Russ.; abstr. in Engl.).
  15. Furmanov I.A. Vzaimosvyaz’ stilya privyazannosti i kommunikatsionnykh reaktsii na revnost’: polovye skhodstva i razlichiya [Interrelation of attachment style and communicative reactions to jealousy: sexual likeness and differences]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2019. Vol. 10 (1), pp. 115—133. DOI:10.17759/sps.2019100107 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  16. Yaremchuk M.V. Osobennosti privyazannosti v detsko-roditel’skikh otnosheniyakh i otnosheniyakh lyubvi u starshikh podrostkov [The attachment’s peculiarities in child’s-and-parents and in love relations of senior teenagers]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2005. Vol. 10 (3), pp. 86—94. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  17. Ainsworth M.D., Blehar M.C., Waters E., et al. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978. 391 p.
  18. Bartholomew K., Cobb R.J., Poole J.A. Adult attachment patterns and social support processes. In Pierce G.R., Lakey B. (eds.) Sourcebook of social support and personality. New York: Plenum Press, 1997, pp. 359—378. DOI:10.1007/978-1- 4899-1843-7_16
  19. Del Giudice M. Sex differences in attachment styles. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2019. Vol. 25, pp. 1—5. DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.02.004
  20. Fearon R.M.P., Mansell W. Cognitive perspectives on unresolved loss: Insights from the study of PTSD. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 2001. Vol. 65 (3), pp. 380—396. DOI:10.1521/bumc.65.3.380.19845
  21. Fraley R.C., Davis K.E., Shaver P.R. Dismissing-avoidance and the defensive organization of emotion, cognition and behavior. In Simpson J.A., Rholes W.S. (eds.) Attachment Theory and Close Relationships. New York: Guilford Press, 1998, pp. 249—279.
  22. Kuftyak E. Relation of child’s attachment with proximity relationships in family. Procedia — Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2015. Vol. 165, pp. 131—135. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.614
  23. Lazarus R., Folkman S. Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer, 1984. 445 p.
  24. Mikulincer M., Orbach I. Attachment styles and repressive defensiveness: the accessibility and architecture of affective memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1995. Vol. 68 (5), pp. 917—925. DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.68.5.917
  25. Shaver Ph.R., Mikulincer M. An overview of adult attachment theory. In Obegi J.H. (ed.) Attachment Theory and Research in Clinical Work with Adults. New York; London: The Guilford Press, 2009, pp. 17—45.
  26. Shorey H. Attachment theory as social-developmental psychopathology framework for the practice of psychotherapy. In Maddux J., Tangney J. (eds.) Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology. New York: Guilford Publications, 2010. P. 157— 176.
  27. Waldinger R.J., Schulz M.S., Barsky A.J., et al. Mapping the road from childhood trauma to adult somatization: The role of attachment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2006. Vol. 68 (1), pp. 129—135. DOI:10.1097/01.psy.0000195834.37094.a4
  28. Won S.K., Seol K.O. Actor and partner effects of couple’s daily stress and dyadic coping on marital satisfaction. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 2020. Vol. 50 (6), pp. 813—821. DOI:10.4040/jkan.20162

Information About the Authors

Elena V. Kuftyak, Doctor of Psychology, Professor of the General Psychology Department, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Нead of the Department of Age and Family Counseling, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 2522
Previous month: 105
Current month: 39


Total: 2597
Previous month: 41
Current month: 17