Parent-Сhild Interaction During Early Childhood: Comparative Analysis of Parent Responsiveness Profile Among Dyads with Typically and Atypically Developing Children



The paper presents the results of the empirical study that aims to build an average group profile of parent responsiveness (PR) for parents with typically and atypically developing children before 3 years of age and to compare average PR profiles between these groups. Seventy parents with typically developing children and 32 parents with atypically developing children (autism, Down syn- drome, intellectual disabilities) between 10 and 36 months of age participated in the present study. The first sample was divided into two sub-groups: parents with typically developing children younger than 12 months of age (infants), and parents with typically developing children between 12 and 36 months of age (toddlers). Parents with atypically developing children were set as one group. The study used the PATTERN technology that employs video observations. Parent responsiveness was assessed on 4 scales (Dominance, Apathy, Sensitivity, and Support); group and individual PR profiles were constructed according to these scales. Sample comparison was conducted using Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. It has been shown that the PR to typically developing children differs compared to atypically developing children. Parents of atypically developing children are more inclined to dominate and are also characterized by greater psychological apathy. The age of typically developing children influences the nature of PR.

General Information

Keywords: parental responsiveness, video-based observations, The Observer XT, early childhood, mother-child interaction, mother-child dyad, free play, PATTERN technology.

Journal rubric: Empirical Researches


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project no. 19-513-92001 “Cross-cultural peculiarities of interaction between a significant adult and a child in Russia and Vietnam”

Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank their colleagues for valuable contribution and support to this research. They are also thankful to all the parents who participated in this research. The authors are grateful to V.V. Park, a young scientist, Clinical Psychologist at the Department of Neuro- and Pathopsychology of Development (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education), for her help in coding cases with the Observer XT program, and to N. Irgashev for developing the Pattern+ software.

For citation: Galasyuk I.N., Mitina O.V. Parent-Сhild Interaction During Early Childhood: Comparative Analysis of Parent Responsiveness Profile Among Dyads with Typically and Atypically Developing Children. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2021. Vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 119–144. DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2021290206.


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Information About the Authors

Irina N. Galasyuk, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professior, Department of Neuro and Pathopsychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Olga V. Mitina, PhD in Psychology, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Communication Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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