Alexander Meshcheryakov on the Formation of the Human Psyche. Alexander Meshcheryakov on the Formation of the Human Psyche



The transcript of the report by Alexander Ivanovich Meshcheryakov “The formation of the psyche in the deaf-blind” is published. Report was made at the meeting of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in July 27, 1969. The report summarizes the theoretical results of the Zagorsk experiment, which continued Professor I.A. Sokolyansky’s long-term work on education of deaf-blind children. This work is interpreted from the point of view of the cultural-historical theory of forming human psyche and speech on the basis of “divided objective activities” of the educator and the child. A.I. Meshcheryakov experimentally demonstrates the technology of child’s interiorization of human activity forms through cultural objects, which, in his expression, are concentrated “wisdom of mankind” – social and historical experience of man’s transforming the world and his own self. The report pays particular attention to the development of cultural means of communication: from signal touching and gesture language to oral and written speech.

General Information

Keywords: This study was funded by of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF), Project number 20-18-00028.

Journal rubric: Scientific Discussions

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Maidansky A.D. Alexander Meshcheryakov on the Formation of the Human Psyche. Alexander Meshcheryakov on the Formation of the Human Psyche [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2020. Vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 188–200. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2020090410. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Meshcheryakov A.I. Iz istorii obucheniya slepoglukhonemykh detei [From the history of teaching deaf-blind children]. Spetsial’naya shkola=Special School, 1969, no. 1 (133),
    pp. 23–32. (In Russ.).
  2. Meshcheryakov A.I. Kak formiruetsya chelovecheskaya psikhika pri otsutstvii zreniya, slukha i rechi [How the human psyche is formed in the absence of sight, hearing and speech]. Voprosy filosofii=Problems of Philosophy, 1968, no. 9, pp. 109–118. (In Russ.).
  3. Meshcheryakov A.I. [Some problems of image in light of peculiarities of formation of the psyche of a deaf-blind child]. Voprosy psikhologii=Problems of Psychology, 1960, no. 4, pp. 111–120. (In Russ.).
  4. Meshcheryakov A.I. Slepoglukhonemota [Blind-deafness]. Bol’shaya meditsinskaya entsiklopediya=Big Medical Encyclopedia. Vol. 30. Mosсow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 1963, pp. 647–651. (In Russ.).
  5. Meshcheryakov A.I., Mareeva R.A. Pervonachal’noe obuchenie slepoglukhonemogo rebenka [Initial training for a deaf-blind child]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1964. 55 p.
    (In Russ.).
  6. Obuchenie i vospitanie slepoglukhonemykh [Training and education of the deaf-blind]. Ed. by I.A. Sokolyansky, A.I. Meshcheryakov. Izvestiya APN RSFSR=APN RSFSR Bulletin, 1962, no. 121. 199 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Yarmolenko A.V. Ocherki psikhologii slepoglukhonemykh [Essays on the psychology of the deaf-blind]. Leningrad: LGU, 1961. 162 p. (In Russ.).

Information About the Authors

Andrey D. Maidansky, Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Professor, Chair of Philosophy, Belgorod National Research University, Associated Researcher, Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Belgorod, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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