Theory of Mind Development in Preschoolers with Hearing Impairment

318

Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the development of a mental model in preschoolers with hearing impairment after cochlear implantation. The analysis of the specifics of the manifestations of the mental model deficiency, which is associated with the peculiarities of using the means of special attention in preschoolers with hearing impairment, is carried out. The ability of a child's focal attention to attention as a critical additional, necessary for the development of a mental model. Sample consisted of 40 preschool children aged 5-7 years (Mage=5,9 years, SDage=0,6 months), 20 with sensorineural hearing loss with cochlear implants (years (Mage=5,6 years, SDage=0,6 months, age by moment of implantation Mage=3,2 years, SDage=0,6) and 20 typically developing preschoolers of 5–7 years old (Mage=5,1 years, SDage=0,5 months). Standardized methods for assessing the mental model were used: test for erroneous opinion (Sally–Anne's task), the task “What does Charlie want?”, the task of understanding intentions based on external signs, the task of understanding the principle “to see means” (A.S. Gerasimova, E.A. Sergienko) To fix the eye movement of preschoolers during the behavior of a child with an adult in play conditions, the eye-tracking method was used. It is recorded that preschoolers with hearing impairments are selectively unable to detect and interpret the intentions of another person, and they also have a lack of means of coordinated attention.

General Information

Keywords: mental model, theory of mind, social cognition, social attention, joint attention, age-related development, preschool age, atypical development, IT tracker

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpse.2021100208

Funding. This work was supported by a grant from the President MK-307.2020.6 “Eye-tracking Study on Disorders of Coordination of Social Attention in Preschool Age”

For citation: Smirnova Y.K. Theory of Mind Development in Preschoolers with Hearing Impairment [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 124–144. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2021100208. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Bozhenko A.V., Khokhlova A.Yu. Razvitie obraznogo myshleniya u glukhikh detei [The development of imaginative thinking in deaf children]. Klinicheskaya i spetsial'naya psikhologiya=Clinical and Special Psychology, 2012, vol. 1. no 2. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.). URL: https://psyjournals.ru/psyclin/2012/n2/52616.shtml (Accessed: 20.05.21).
  2. Ermakov P.N., Vorob'eva E.V., Kaidanovskaya I.A. i dr. Model' psikhicheskogo i razvitie myshleniya u detei doshkol'nogo vozrasta [The mental model and the development of thinking in preschool children]. Eksperimental'naya psikhologiya=Experimental Psychology, 2016, no. 3, pp. 72–80. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  3. Rozanova T.V. Deti s narusheniyami slukha [Children with hearing impairment]. In V.I. Lubovskii (ed.), Spetsial'naya psikhologiya: uchebnik dlya studentov vyssh. ped. ucheb. zavedenii, obuchayushchikhsya po defektol. Spetsial'nostyam Spetsial'naya psikhologiya=Special psychology: a textbook for students of higher pedagogical educational institutions studying in defectological specialties, 6th ed. Moscow: Akademiya, 2009,
    pp. 138–194. (In Russ.).
  4. Sergienko E.A. Model' psikhicheskogo kak integrativnoe ponyatie v sovremennoi psikhologii [The mental model as an integrative concept in modern psychology]. Psikhologicheskie issledovaniya=Psychological Research, 2017, vol. 10, no. 54,
    p. 7. URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/num/2017v10n54/1454-sergienko54.html (дата обращения: 20.05.2021). (In Russ, abstr. in Engl.)
  5. Sergienko E.A., Lebedeva E.I., Prusakova O.A. Model' psikhicheskogo kak osnova stanovleniya ponimaniya sebya i drugogo v ontogeneze cheloveka [The mental model as the basis for the formation of an understanding of self and other in the ontogenesis of man]. Moscow: publ. of Institute of Psychology RAS, 2009. 415 p. (In Russ.)
  6. Khokhlova A.Yu. Effektivnost' detsko-roditel'skogo obshcheniya i intellektual'noe razvitie glukhikh detei [The effectiveness of parent-child communication and the intellectual development of deaf children]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya=Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2008, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 86–91. URL: https://psyjournals.ru/ kip/2008/n3/Khokhlova_full.shtml (Accessed: 20.05.2021). (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  7. Bruschetta S. Research on the development of a theory of mind in deaf children:
    A study on methodological procedures as well as on practical and theoretical issues. Life Span and Disability, 2005, vol. 8, pp. 1–18. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/271846913_Research_on_the_development_of_a_theory_of_Mind_in_deaf_children_a_study_on_methodological_procedures_as_well_as_on_practical_and_theoretical_issues (Accessed: 20.05.21)
  8. Chen C.‐H., Castellanos I., Yu C. et al. Effects of children’s hearing loss on the synchrony between parents’ object naming and children’s attention. Infant Behavior and Development, 2019, vol. 57, 101322. DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.04.004
  9. Chen C.‐H., Castellanos I., Yu C. et al. Parental linguistic input and its relation to toddlers’ visual attention in joint object play: A comparison between children with normal hearing and children with hearing loss. Infancy, 2019, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 589–612. DOI: 10.1111/infa.12291
  10. Chen C.‐H., Castellanos I., Yu C. et al. What leads to coordinated attention in parent–toddler interactions? Children's hearing status matters. Developmental Science, 2020,
    vol. 23, e12919. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12919
  11. de Villiers P.A. The role of language in theory-of-mind development: What deaf children tell us. In J.W. Astington, J.A. Baird (eds.), Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind (pp. 266–297). NY: Oxford University Press, 2005. DOI: 10.1097/TLD.0000000000000037
  12. Depowski N., Abaya H., Oghalai J. et al. Modality use in joint attention between hearing parents and deaf children. Frontiers in Psychology, 2015, vol. 6, p. 1556. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01556
  13. Dunn J., Brophy M. Communication, relationships, and individual differences in children's understanding of mind. In J.W. Astington, J.A. Baird (eds.), Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind (pp. 50–69). NY: Oxford University Press, 2005. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159912.003.0003
  14. Emmorey K., Lane H. The signs of language revisited: An anthology to honor Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Psychology Press, 2000. 596 p.
  15. Giovanni V., Patrizio P., Virginia V. Deaf children attending different school environments: Sign language abilities and theory of mind. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2013, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–18. DOI: 10.1093/deafed/ens035
  16. Jackson A.L. Language facility and theory of mind development in deaf children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2001, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 161–176. DOI: 10.1093/deafed/6.3.161
  17. Lohmann H., Tomasello M. The role of language in the development of false belief understanding: A training study. Child Development, 2003, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1130–1144. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00597
  18. Marschark M., Green V., Hindmarsh G. et al. Understanding theory of mind in children who are deaf. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2000, vol. 41,
    pp. 1067–1073 DOI:10.1111/1469-7610.00694
  19. McQuillan M.E., Smith L.B., Yu C. et al. Parents Influence the Visual Learning Environment Through Children's Manual Actions. Child Development, 2020, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. e701–e720. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13274
  20. Meins E., Fernyhough C., Wainwright R. et al. Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictor of theory of mind understanding. Child Development, 2002, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1715–1726. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291709992340
  21. Meristo M., Falkman K.W., Hjelmquist E. Language access and theory of mind reasoning: Evidence from deaf children in bilingual and oralist environments. Developmental Psychology, 2007, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1156–1169. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.5.1156
  22. Milligan K., Astington J.W., Dack L.A. Language and theory of mind: Meta-analysis of the relation between language ability and false-belief understanding. Child Development, 2007, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 622–646. URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4139249 (Accessed: 20.05.21).
  23. Peterson C.C. Telling the story of theory of mind: Deaf and hearing children’s narratives and mental state understanding. Slaughter British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2006, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 151–179. DOI: 10.1348/026151005X60022
  24. Peterson C.C., Siegal M. Insights into theory of mind from deafness and autism. Mind & Language, 2000, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 123–145. DOI: 10.1111/1468-0017.00126
  25. Peterson C.C., Slaughter V.P. Opening windows into the mind: Mothers’ preferences for mental state explanations and children’s theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 2003, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 399–429. DOI: 10.1016/S0885-2014(03)00041-8
  26. Pyers J. The relationship between language and false-belief understanding: Evidence from learners of an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2005. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02377.x
  27. Ruffman T., Slade L., Rowlandson K. et al. How language relates to belief, desire, and emotion understanding. Cognitive Development, 2003, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 139–158. DOI: 10.1016/S0885-2014(03)00002-9
  28. Schick B., de Villiers P., Villiers J. et al. Language and theory of mind: A study of deaf children. Child Development, 2007, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 376–396. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.0100
  29. Slade L., Ruffman T. How language does (and does not) relate to theory of mind: A longitudinal study of syntax, semantics, working memory and false belief. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2005, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 117–141. DOI: 10.1348/ 026151004X21332
  30. Tomasuolo E., Valeri G., Di Renzo A. et al. Deaf children attending different school environments: Sign language abilities and theory of mind. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2013, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 12–29. DOI:10.1093/deafed/ens035
  31. Woolfe T., Want S.C., Siegal M. Siblings and theory of mind in deaf native signing children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2003, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 340–347. DOI: 10.1093/deafed/eng023.
  32. Yu C., Chen C., Castellanos I. et al. What leads to coordinated attention in parent–toddler interactions? Children's hearing status matters. Developmental Science, 2020,
    vol. 23, no. 3, p. e12919. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12919.
  33. Yu C., Monroy C., Chen C.H. et al. Action prediction during real‐time parent‐infant interactions. Developmental Science, 2021, vol. 24, no. 3, p. e13042. DOI: 10.1111/ desc.13042
  34. Yu C., Smith L.B. Hand–eye coordination predicts joint attention. Child Development, 2017, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 2060–2078. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12730

Information About the Authors

Yana K. Smirnova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of General and Applied Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5453-0144, e-mail: yana.smirnova@mail.ru

Metrics

Views

Total: 903
Previous month: 16
Current month: 13

Downloads

Total: 318
Previous month: 11
Current month: 3