The phenomenon of comparison in the process of referential communication



The article presents the analysis of the studies of recent years and modern studies devoted to the problems of the reference communication. In the course of the theoretical discussion of the role of comparison in the processes of the description and identification of the target referent in communicative situations we also consider various plans of the manifestation of comparison in the reference communication and present the empirical classification of verbal communication techniques for transmission of information about the target referent. The description of the cycle of empirical studies of reference communication, performed by the authors, includes consideration of three experimental situations organized according to a similar design: in the first experimental situation we simulated the reference fellowship in the task of description and selection of complex acoustic events; in the second, communication concerned a complex visual objects; and finally, in the third - communication concerned a complex of objects of different modalities (one of the participants described drawings shown to him made by other people by associations with different musical fragments, and the second participant was suggested to find a music track in accordance to the described pattern). The results of the study clearly demonstrate the features of the use of various methods of transfer of information about the target referent in different communicative situations and the relationship between the efficiency of the solution of problem of identification of the target referent and used communication techniques as well as the characteristics of the operations with the objects performed by participants operations.

General Information

Keywords: comparison, perception, verbal communication, reference communication, verbal-communication techniques

Journal rubric: Psychology of Perception

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Samoylenko E.S., Nosulenko V.N., Starikova I.V. The phenomenon of comparison in the process of referential communication. Eksperimental'naâ psihologiâ = Experimental Psychology (Russia), 2012. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 39–62. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Elena S. Samoylenko, Doctor of Psychology, Chief Researcher, Laboratory of Cognitive Processes and Mathematical Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Valeriy N. Nosulenko, Doctor of Psychology, Chief Researcher, Laboratory of Cognitive Processes and Mathematical Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief Researcher, Institute of Experimental Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina V. Starikova, Laboratory Assistant, Center for Expeimental Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:



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