The capital of individuality: A prehistory and basic assumptions



An overview of modern foreign capital studies is presented. Human, social, psychological capitals as independent areas of research are singled out and described. For the first time, the concept of the capital of individuality, complementing other types of capital, is being introduced and developed. The basic features of capital are revealed through the concepts of resources and potentials. Individual properties taken together are shown as distributed resources and potentials, on the one hand, the combined resources and potentials of the individuality taken together by its properties on the other. The perspective of a systematic study of the capital of individuality may be the appeal to the theory of integral individuality of V.S. Merlin and the concept of system integration of human individuality by B.A. Vyatkin and L.Y. Dorfman. An approach to empirical study of the capital of individuality is planned, taking into account the multi-level properties of integral individuality as resources and potentials that enable a person to achieve high results in various areas of life. The concept of the capital of individuality is introduced in order to complement the existing notions of individual differences with a view of them from the point of view of revealing the strengths of human possibilities for existence, life support, individual success.

General Information

Keywords: human capital, social capital, psychological capital, capital of individuality, individuality, resources, potentials

Journal rubric: General Psychology

Article type: review article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 19-29-07046.

For citation: Dorfman L.Y., Mishkevich A.M., Kalugin A.Yu. The capital of individuality: A prehistory and basic assumptions [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 70–78. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2021100207. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Vyatkin B.A., Dorfman L.Ya. Sistemnaya integratsiya individual'nosti cheloveka [System integration of human personality]. Moscow: Institut psikhologii RAN, 2018. 176 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Dorfman L.Ya., Kalugin A.Yu. Sootnoshenie resursov, potentsialov i akademicheskikh dostizhenii studentov. Soobshchenie 1. Differentsiatsiya resursov i potentsialov [Resources, potentials and academic achievements of students. part 1. differentiation of resources and potentials]. Obrazovanie i nauka = The Education and Science Journal, 2020. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 64–88. DOI:10.17853/1994-5639-2020-4-64-88 (In Russ.).
  3. Dorfman L.Ya., Kalugin A.Yu. Sootnoshenie resursov, potentsialov i akademicheskikh dostizhenii studentov. Soobshchenie 2. Ot differentsiatsii k integratsii resursov i potentsialov akademicheskikh dostizhenii studentov [Resources, Potentials and Academic Achievements of Students. Part 2. From Differentiation to Integration of Resources, Potentials and Academic Achievements of Students]. Obrazovanie i nauka = The Education and Science Journal, 2020. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 90–110. DOI:10.17853/1994-5639-2020-5-90-110 (In Russ.).
  4. Merlin V.S. Ocherk integral'nogo issledovaniya individual'nosti [Essay on the Integral Study of Individuality]. Moscow: Pedagogika, 1986. 256 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Nechaev V.I., Mikhailushkin P.V. Ekonomicheskii slovar' [Economic Dictionary]. Krasnodar: Prosveshchenie-Yug, 2011. 464 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Raizberg B.A., Lozovskii L.Sh., Starodubtseva E.B. Sovremennyi ekonomicheskii slovar' [Modern economic dictionary]. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2019. 512 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Acedo F.J., Barroso C., Galan J.L. The resource-based theory: dissemination and main trends. Strategic management journal, 2006. Vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 621–636. DOI:10.1002/smj.532
  8. Martínez I.M. et al. Antecedents of academic performance of university students: academic engagement and psychological capital resources. Educational Psychology, 2019. Vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1047–1067. DOI:10.1080/01443410.2019.1623382
  9. Avey J.B., Luthans F., Jensen S.M. Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human resource management, 2009. Vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 677–693. DOI:10.1002/hrm.20294
  10. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman, 1997. 604 p.
  11. Baron R.A., Franklin R.J., Hmieleski K.M. Why entrepreneurs often experience low, not high, levels of stress: The joint effects of selection and psychological capital. Journal of management, 2016. Vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 742–768. DOI:10.1177/0149206313495411
  12. Larsen L. et al. Bonding and bridging: Understanding the relationship between social capital and civic action. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 2004. Vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 64–77. DOI:10.1177/0739456X04267181
  13. Bye L., Muller F., Oprescu F. The impact of social capital on student wellbeing and university life satisfaction: a semester-long repeated measures study. Higher Education Research & Development, 2020. Vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 898–912. DOI:10.1080/07294360.2019.1705253
  14. Carmona-Halty M., Schaufeli W.B., Salanova M. Good relationships, good performance: the mediating role of psychological capital – a three-wave study among students. Frontiers in psychology, 2019. Vol. 10. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00306
  15. Chen S.L. The relationship of leader psychological capital and follower psychological capital, job engagement and job performance: a multilevel mediating perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2015. Vol. 26, no. 18, pp. 2349–2365. DOI:10.1080/09585192.2015.1020443
  16. Daspit J.J., Mims T.C., Zavattaro S.M. The role of positive psychological states in online learning: integrating psychological capital into the community of inquiry framework. Journal of Management Education, 2015. Vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 626–649. DOI:10.1177/1052562914564980
  17. Dello Russo S., Stoykova P. Psychological capital intervention (PCI): A replication and extension. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 2015. Vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 329–347. DOI:10.1002/hrdq.21212
  18. Crook T.R. et al. Does human capital matter? A meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and firm performance. Journal of applied psychology, 2011. Vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 443–456. DOI:10.1037/a0022147
  19. Waters L. et al. Does team psychological capital predict team outcomes at work? International Journal of Wellbeing, 2020. Vol. 10, no. 1. DOI:10.5502/ijw.v10i1.923
  20. Fisher E.L., Talmage C.A. Perceived social capital and attitudes about liberals and conservatives: A political psychology and community development examination of politically polarized communities. Community Development, 2020. Vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 212–229. DOI:10.1080/15575330.2019.1677733
  21. Goddard R.D. Relational networks, social trust, and norms: A social capital perspective on students’ chances of academic success. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 2003. Vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 59–74. DOI:10.3102/01623737025001059
  22. Hobfoll S.E. Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of general psychology, 2002. Vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 307–324. DOI:10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.307
  23. Honicke T., Broadbent J. The influence of academic self-efficacy on academic performance: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 2016. Vol. 17, pp. 63–84. DOI:10.1016/j.edurev.2015.11.002
  24. Snyder C.R. et al. Hope and academic success in college. Journal of educational psychology, 2002. Vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 820–826. DOI:10.1037//0022-0663.94.4.820
  25. Chen Q. et al. Influence of leaders' psychological capital on their followers: Multilevel mediation effect of organizational identification. Frontiers in psychology, 2017. Vol. 8, article ID 1776, 12 p. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01776
  26. Boon C. et al. Integrating strategic human capital and strategic human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2018. Vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 34–67. DOI:10.1080/09585192.2017.1380063
  27. Kleinbaum A.M., Jordan A.H., Audia P.G. An altercentric perspective on the origins of brokerage in social networks: How perceived empathy moderates the self-monitoring effect. Organization Science, 2015. Vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1226–1242. DOI:10.1287/orsc.2014.0961
  28. Leonard M. Bonding and bridging social capital: Reflections from Belfast. Sociology, 2004. Vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 927–944. DOI:10.1177/0038038504047176
  29. Lin N. Building a network theory of social capital [Elektronnyi resurs]. Connections, 1999. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 28–51. URL: (Accessed 07.06.2021).
  30. Lin N. Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2002. 267 p.
  31. Liu D., Ainsworth S.E., Baumeister R.F. A meta-analysis of social networking online and social capital. Review of General Psychology, 2016. Vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 369–391. DOI:10.1037/gpr0000091
  32. Luthans F. Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Perspectives, 2002. Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 57–72. DOI:10.5465/ame.2002.6640181
  33. Luthans F., Youssef-Morgan C.M. Psychological capital: An evidence-based positive approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2017. Vol. 4, pp. 339–366. DOI:10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113324
  34. Luthans K.W., Luthans B.C., Chaffin T.D. Refining grit in academic performance: The mediational role of psychological capital. Journal of Management Education, 2019. Vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 35–61. DOI:10.1177/1052562918804282
  35. Luthans K.W., Luthans B.C., Palmer N.F. A positive approach to management education: The relationship between academic PsyCap and student engagement. Journal of Management Development, 2016. Vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1098–1118. DOI:10.1108/JMD-06-2015-0091
  36. Marginson S. Limitations of human capital theory. Studies in Higher Education, 2019. Vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 287–301. DOI:10.1080/03075079.2017.1359823
  37. Martin A.J., Marsh H.W. Academic resilience and its psychological and educational correlates: A construct validity approach. Psychology in the Schools, 2006. Vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 267–281. DOI:10.1002/pits.20149
  38. Nawaz T. Exploring the nexus between human capital, corporate governance and performance: Evidence from Islamic banks [Elektronnyi resurs]. Journal of Business Ethics, 2019. Vol. 157, no. 2, pp. 567–587. URL: (Accessed 07.06.2021).
  39. Carver C.S. et al. Optimism. In Lopez S.J., Snyder C.R. (eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 303–311.
  40. Luthans F. et al. Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel psychology, 2007. Vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 541–572. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x
  41. Putnam R., Leonardi R., Nanetti R. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy Making democracy work Princeton. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993. 256 p.
  42. Putnam R.D. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and schuster, 2000. DOI:10.1145/358916.361990
  43. Seligman M.E.P. Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books, 1998. 319 p.
  44. Selvaraj P.R., Bhat C.S. Predicting the mental health of college students with psychological capital. Journal of Mental Health, 2018. Vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 279–287. DOI:10.1080/09638237.2018.1469738
  45. Snyder C.R., Irving L., Anderson J. Hope and health: Measuring the will and the ways. In Snyder C.R., Donelson R.F. (eds.), Handbook of social and clinical psychology. Pergamon General Psychology Series. Pergamon Press, 1991, pp. 285–305.
  46. Solberg N.L., Evans D.R., Segerstrom S.C. Optimism and College Retention: Mediation by Motivation, Performance, and Adjustment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2009. Vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1887–1912. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00508.x
  47. Talmage C.A., Peterson C.B., Knopf R.C. Punk rock wisdom: An emancipative psychological social capital approach to community well-being. In Phillips R., Wong C. (eds.), Handbook of community well-being research. Dordrecht, UK: Springer, 2017, pp. 11–38.
  48. Luthans F. et al. The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate-employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2008. Vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 219–238. DOI:10.1002/job.507
  49. Tulin M., Lancee B., Volker B. Personality and social capital. Social psychology quarterly, 2018. Vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 295–318. DOI:10.1177/0190272518804533
  50. Wasonga T., Christman D.E., Kilmer L. Ethnicity, gender and age: Predicting resilience and academic achievement among urban high school students. American secondary education, 2003. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 62–74.

Information About the Authors

Leonid Y. Dorfman, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Professor, Head of the Department of Humanities, Perm State Institute of Culture, Perm, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Arina M. Mishkevich, PhD in Psychology, Senior Lecturer, Department of Developmental Psychology, Perm State University, Perm, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Alexey Y. Kalugin, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Psychology, Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Perm, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 538
Previous month: 4
Current month: 3


Total: 150
Previous month: 0
Current month: 3