Cognitive predictors of hybrid and alternative identification in multicultural environment: review of foreign studies



In the modern world, the processes of globalization, migration, increased social mobility, the availability of tourism and other ways of meeting cultures lead to the activation of intercultural communication. More and more people become bearers of more than one culture (biculturals). The choice of an identity model in scientific publications is often considered as a result of environmental influences, but intrapsychic factors, including cognitive styles, are not sufficiently considered. Existing studies give a rather vague picture. The purpose of this work is to generalize the available data on the role of the cognitive component in the identification processes, to identify possible predictors of hybrid and alternative identification, to build a model of the influence of cognitive factors on the choice of an identification model. The author's hypothetical model of cognitive predictors of hybrid or alternative identity (in the schema format) is proposed. We see further prospects for working on the problem in the empirical testing of the proposed model.

General Information

Keywords: identification, hybrid and alternative identification, multicultural environment, intercultural competence, cognitive openness, cultural frame, tolerance of uncertainty, cognitive complexity, conflict.

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology

Article type: review article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 20-113-50225.

For citation: Yasin M.I., Ryabichenko T.A. Cognitive predictors of hybrid and alternative identification in multicultural environment: review of foreign studies [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 79–91. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2021100308. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Galyapina V.N., Khojiev Zh.Zh. Rol' identichnosti, etnicheskikh stereotipov i strategii akkul'turatsii v adaptatsii migrantov iz Srednei Azii v Moskovskom regione [The Role of Identity, Ethnic Stereotypes and Acculturation Strategies in the Adaptation of Migrants from Central Asia in the Moscow Region]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2017. Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 15–28. DOI:10.17759/chp.2017130402 (In Russ.).
  2. Gritsenko V.V. et al. Mezhkul'turnaya kompetentnost' kak prediktor adaptatsii inostrannykh studentov [Intercultural Competence as a Predictor of Adaptation of Foreign Students]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2021. Vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 102–112. DOI:10.17759/chp.2021170114 (In Russ.).
  3. Zinchenko Yu.P. et al. Metodologicheskie problemy issledovaniya vliyaniya dvuyazychiya na kognitivnye protsessy i etnokul'turnuyu identichnost' [Methodological issues of studying the impact of bilingualism on cognitions and ethnocultural identity]. Vestnik moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya = Moscow university psychology bulletin, 2019, no. 1, pp. 174–194. DOI:10.11621/vsp.2019.01.174 (In Russ.).
  4. Ryabichenko T.A., Lebedeva N.M., Plotka I.D. Mnozhestvennye identichnosti, akkul'turatsiya i adaptatsiya russkikh v Latvii i Gruzii [Multiple Identities, Acculturation and Adaptation of Russians in Latvia and Georgia]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2019, Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 54–64. DOI:10.17759/chp.2019150206 (In Russ.).
  5. Yasin M.I. Kontseptsiya kognitivnoi zakrytosti: istoriya i smezhnye ponyatiya [Cognitive closure concept: history and relevant notions]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2020, Vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 174–181. DOI:10.34216/2073-1426-2020-26-1-174-181 (In Russ.).
  6. Ward C. et al. Acculturative stress and cultural identity styles as predictors of psychosocial functioning in Hispanic Americans. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2021. Vol. 80, pp. 274–284. DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.12.002
  7. Benet-Martínez V., Haritatos J. Bicultural identity integration (BII): Components and psychosocial antecedents. Journal of Personality, 2005. Vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1015–1050. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00337.x
  8. Benet-Martínez V., Lee F., Cheng C.-Y. Bicultural Identity Integration (BII): Components, Psychosocial Antecedents, and Outcomes (in press). In Gelfand M., Chiu C.Y., Hong Y.Y. (eds.), Handbook of advances in culture and psychology (Vol. X). New York: Oxford University Press, 2021, pp. 244–284.
  9. Benet-Martínez V., Repke L. Broadening the social psychological approach to acculturation: cultural, personality and social-network approaches. International Journal of Social Psychology, 2020. Vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 526–559. DOI:10.1080/02134748.2020.1783837
  10. Birman D. et al. Biculturalism: Negotiating Multiple Cultural Streams. In Schwartz S., Unge J. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Acculturation and Health. Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190215217.013.3
  11. Bobowik M., Benet-Martínez V., Repke L. “United in diversity”: The interplay of social network characteristics and personality in predicting outgroup attitudes [Elektronnyi resurs]. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2021, pp. 1–27. URL: (Accessed 01.06.2021).
  12. Brown A.D. Identity work and organizational identification. International Journal of Management Reviews, 2017. Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 296–317. DOI:10.1111/ijmr.12152
  13. Amiot C.E. et al. Capturing changes in social identities over time and how they become part of the self-concept. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2015. Vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 171–187. DOI:10.1111/spc3.12169
  14. Cho J., Tadmor C.T., Morris M.W. Are All Diversity Ideologies Creatively Equal? The Diverging Consequences of Colorblindness, Multiculturalism, and Polyculturalism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2018. Vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1376–1401. DOI:10.1177/0022022118793528
  15. Fong L.H.N. et al. Cultural essentialism and tailored hotel service for Chinese: the moderating role of satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 2019. Vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 3610–3626. DOI:10.1108/IJCHM-11-2018-0910
  16. Cheng C.-Y. et al. Divided Loyalties: Identity Integration and Cultural Cues Predict Ingroup Favoritism AmongBiculturals. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2021. Vol. 80, pp. 321–335. DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.10.003
  17. Doucerain M.M., Amiot C.E., Ryder A.G. Balancing out bonding and bridging capital: Social network correlates of multicultural identity configurations among Russian migrants to Canada [Elektronnyi resurs]. Self and Identity, 2021, pp. 1–26. URL: (Accessed 01.06.2021).
  18. Cheng C.-Y. et al. Finding the right mix: How the composition of self-managing multicultural teams’ cultural value orientation influences performance over time [Elektronnyi resurs]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2012. Vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 389–411. URL: (Accessed 13.09.2021).
  19. Fischer-Neumann M. Immigrants' Ethnic Identification and Political Involvement in the Face of Discrimination: A Longitudinal Study of the German Case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2014. Vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 339–362. DOI:10.1080/1369183X.2013.847362
  20. Tesi A. et al. Group dominance in hierarchy-attenuating and hierarchy-enhancing organizations: The role of social dominance orientation, need for cognitive closure, and power tactics in a person–environment (mis) fit perspective. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2020. Vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 102–114. DOI:10.1037/gdn0000117
  21. Haritatos J., Benet-Martínez V. Bicultural identities: the interface of cultural, personality, and socio-cognitive processes. Journal of Research in Personality, 2002. Vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 598–606. DOI:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00510-X
  22. Hofstede G. Culture’s consequences; comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001. 596 p. URL: (Accessed 01.06.2021).
  23. Huynh Q.L., Nguyen A.M., Benet-Martínez V. Bicultural identity integration [Elektronnyi resurs]. In Schwartz S.J., Luyckx K., Vignoles V.L. (eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. New York: Springer, 2011, pp. 827–842. URL: (Accessed 01.06.2021).
  24. Ward C. et al. Hybrid and Alternating Identity Styles as Strategies for Managing Multicultural Identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2018. Vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1402–1439. DOI:10.1177/0022022118782641
  25. Kashima E.S., Pillai D. Identity development in cultural transition: The role of need for closure. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2011. Vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 725–739. DOI:10.1177/0022022110362749
  26. Kharkhurin A.V. Creative problem solving strategies differ across cultures. In Sutherlin G. (ed.), Blame, Sway, and Vigilante Tactics: How Other Cultures Think Differently and Implications for Planning. US: Department of Defense Strategic Multilayer Assessment Periodic Publication, 2018, pp. 27–30.
  27. Kruglanski A.W. The psychology of closed mindedness. New York: Psychology press, 2004. 192 p.
  28. Lam A. Hybrids, identity and knowledge boundaries: Creative artists between academic and practitioner communities. Human Relations, 2020. Vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 837–863. DOI:10.1177/0018726719846259
  29. No S. et al. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2008. Vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 991–1004. DOI:10.1037/a0012978
  30. Liu Z., Brockner J., Morris M.W. Bolstering biculturals: Self-affirmation reduces contrastive responses to identity primes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2021. Vol. 95, 9 p. DOI:10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104150
  31. Lücke G., Kostova T., Roth K. Multiculturalism from a cognitive perspective: Patterns and implications. Journal of International Business Studies, 2014. Vol. 45, pp. 169–190. DOI:10.1057/jibs.2013.53
  32. Marotta V. Hybrid identities in a globalised world. In Germov J., Poole M. (eds.), Public sociology: An introduction to Australian society. Crow’s Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2011, pp. 188–204.
  33. Martin L., Shao B. Early Immersive Culture Mixing: The Key to Understanding Cognitive and Identity Differences Among Multiculturals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2016. Vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1409–1429. DOI:10.1177/0022022116639391
  34. Chirumbolo A. et al. Motivated closed-mindedness and creativity in small groups. Small Group Research, 2005. Vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 59–82. DOI:10.1177/1046496404268535
  35. Tadmor C.T. et al. Multicultural Experiences Reduce Intergroup Bias Through Epistemic Unfreezing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012. Vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 750–72. DOI:10.1037/a0029719
  36. Hong Y. et al. Multicultural identities. In Kitayama S., Cohen D. (eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology. New York: Guilford, 2007, pp. 323–345.
  37. Chernikova M. et al. Need for closure and reactions to innovation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2017. Vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 473–481. DOI:10.1111/jasp.12451
  38. Benet-Martínez V. et al. Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible cultural identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2002. Vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 492–516. DOI:10.1177/0022022102033005005
  39. Phua D.Y., Leong C.H., Hong Y. Heterogeneity in national identity construct: Example of Singapore using network analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2020. Vol. 78, pp. 20–32. DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2020.05.010
  40. Webber D. et al. Psychological approaches to terrorist rehabilitation: Direct and indirect mechanisms of deradicalization. In Hansen S.J., Lid S. (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Deradicalisation and Disengagement. London: Routledge, 2020, pp. 54–66. DOI:10.4324/9781315387420-6
  41. Szabo A., Ward C. The relationship between intercultural abilities and cultural identity styles: A longitudinal cross-lagged analysis. International Journal of Psychology, 2020. Vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 465–471. DOI:10.1002/ijop.12592
  42. Tadmor C.T., Galinsky A.D., Maddux W.W. Getting the most out of living abroad: Biculturalism and integrative complexity as key drivers of creative and professional success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012. Vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 520–542. DOI:10.1037/a0029360
  43. Tadmor C.T., Tetlock P.E., Peng K. Acculturation strategies and cognitive complexity: The Cognitive Implications of Biculturalism. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 2009. Vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 105–139. DOI:10.1177/0022022108326279
  44. Baldner C. et al. The epistemic bases of prejudice: The role of need for cognitive closure. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 2019. Vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 447–461. DOI:10.4473/TPM26.3.9
  45. Steel P. et al. The Happy Culture: A Theoretical, Meta-Analytic, and Empirical Review of the Relationship Between Culture and Wealth and Subjective Well-Being. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2018. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 128–169. DOI:10.1177/1088868317721372
  46. West A.L. et al. The Potential Cost of Cultural Fit: Frame Switching Undermines Perceptions of Authenticity in Western Contexts. Frontiers in psychology, 2018. Vol. 9, 18 p. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02622
  47. Tadmor C.T. et al. The tolerance benefits of multicultural experiences depend on the perception of available mental resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2018. Vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 398–426. DOI:10.1037/pspa0000125
  48. Cheng C.Y. et al. Variations in multicultural experience: Influence of bicultural identity integration on socio-cognitive processes and outcomes. In Benet-Martínez V., Hong Y. (eds.), The Oxford handbook of multicultural identity. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 276–299.
  49. Wagner C. Migration and the Creation of Hybrid Identity: Chances and Challenges. In Rotaru I.G., Simion D.E., Burcea V. (eds.), The Phenomenon of Migration: proceedings Harvard Square Symposium (Harvard, 2016). Scientia Moralitas Research Institute, 2016, pp. 237–255. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.999620
  50. Wilkinson B.D., Dewell J.A. Cognitive Complexity: Differentiation and Integration in Counseling Practice and Training. Journal of Counseling and development, 2019. Vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 317–324. DOI:10.1002/jcad.12271
  51. Yampolsky M.A., Amiot C.E. Discrimination and multicultural identity configurations: The mediating role of stress. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2016. Vol. 55, pp. 86–96. DOI:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2016.09.002
  52. Zemmouri L., Amiar M. Cultural identity in the age of globalization: challenges for openness and hopes for global identity [Elektronnyi resurs]. In Ferit Uslu (ed.), Proceedings of INTCESS 2020-7th International Conference on Education and Social Sciences (DUBAI (UAE), 20–22 January 2020). Istanbul: International Organization Center of Academic Research, 2020, pp. 1084–1090. URL: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html? (Accessed 01.06.2021).

Information About the Authors

Miroslav I. Yasin, Graduate Student, School of Psychology, National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Tatiana A. Ryabichenko, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, NNational Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:


Total HTML views: 406
HTML views in previous month: 14
HTML views in current month: 8

Total PDF downloads: 184
PDF downloads in previous month: 3
PDF downloads in current month: 1