Intellectually Gifted Fifth Graders: Is Enriched Learning Practice Needed in Primary School?

61

Abstract

The article presents the results of a study of the features of cognitive development and learning motivation of intellectually gifted and normotypical fifth-graders who studied in the primary grades according to programs of various types – enriched and traditional (typical). Using the two-way MANOVA analysis of variance, we tested the assumption about the influence of primary school education on the cognitive development and learning motivation of intellectually gifted and normotypical fifth-graders (N=150). Research methods: "Standard Progressive Matrices" by Raven, computerized tests for diagnosing basic cognitive characteristics (number sense, working memory and information processing speed) Tikhomirova T.N. and Malykh S.B., the author's technique "Figurative and verbal creativity", "Scale of educational motivation" Gordeeva T.O. It was revealed that intellectually gifted fifth-graders, regardless of the educational program, are characterized by higher rates of intrinsic cognitive motivation, intelligence, sense of number and speed of information processing compared to their normotypical peers. It is shown that "giftedness" and not the "educational program", affects the sense of number and the speed of information processing, while the influence of the factors "giftedness" and "educational program" on indicators of learning motivation was not found. The type of education in elementary school is critical to the development of the creative potential of intellectually gifted children. In enriched learning, gifted children demonstrate significantly higher levels of verbal and figurative creativity than their gifted peers in traditional learning. With respect to normotypical peers, no significant positive effects of enriched learning on creativity indicators were found.

General Information

Keywords: intellectually gifted schoolchildren, enriched and traditional (typical) learning, basic and general cognitive characteristics, learning motivation

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/psyedu.2022140304

Received: 17.08.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Shumakova N.B. Intellectually Gifted Fifth Graders: Is Enriched Learning Practice Needed in Primary School? [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psychological-Educational Studies, 2022. Vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 61–77. DOI: 10.17759/psyedu.2022140304. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Busygina N.P., Gorobtsova A.V. Kachestvennaya metodologiya i dokazatel'nye praktiki v psikhologii i obrazovanii [Qualitative Research and Evidence-Based Practices in Psychology and Education]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2021. Vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 117–127. DOI:10.17759/pse.2021260609 (In Russ.).
  2. Voronkova I.V., Lagutina E.N., Adaskina A.A. Osobennosti uchebnoi motivatsii i emotsional'nogo otnosheniya k ucheniyu obuchayushchikhsya 4-kh klassov (na primere traditsionnogo i razvivayushchego obucheniya) [Features of Educational Motivation and Emotional Attitude to Learning of 4-grade Students (on the Example of Traditional and Developmental Education)] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological- Educational Studies, 2022. Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 32–48. DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2022140103 (In Russ.).
  3. Klein K.G. Tipy motivatsionnoi regulyatsii: teoreticheskaya znachimost' konstrukta i problema ego izmereniya [Perceived locus of causality: theoretical significance and the problem of measurement] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya psikhologiya = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 125–131. DOI:10.17759/jmfp.2021100112 (In Russ.).
  4. Subotnik R.F., Ol'shevski-Kubilyus P., Uorrell F.K. Raskrytie tvorcheskikh sposobnostei: podkhod k razvitiyu talanta [Unlocking Creative Productivity: A Talent Development Approach] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 17–32. DOI:10.17759/jmfp.2021100402 (In Russ.).
  5. Tikhomirova T.N., Malykh S.B. Kognitivnye osnovy individual'nykh razlichii v uspeshnosti obucheniya [Cognitive Basis of Individual Differences in Learning Success]. Moscow; Saint-Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2017. 312 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Shishova E.O. Vliyanie tipa obrazovatel'noi sredy na psikhicheskoe razvitie doshkol'nikov [The Influence of the Type of Educational Environment on Preschool Children's Mental Development] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological-Educational Studies, 2021. Vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 84–100. DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2021130106 (In Russ.).
  7. Shumakova N.B. Poznavatel'naya aktivnost' i kreativnost' mladshikh shkol'nikov s vysokimi intellektual'nymi sposobnostyami v raznykh obrazovatel'nykh sredakh [Social Situation of Developement as one of the Basic Conditions of Children's Creative Strategies Formation] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological-Educational Studies, 2019. Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 57–69. DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2019110105 (In Russ.).
  8. Shumakova N.B. Obuchenie odarennykh i talantlivykh detei v kontekste dokazatel'noi praktiki [Training Gifted and Talented Children in the Context of Evidence-Based Practice] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sotsial’nye nauki i detstvo = Social Sciences and Childhood, 2020. Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 34–46. DOI:10.17759/ssc.2020010103 (In Russ.).
  9. Shcheblanova E.I., Petrova S.O. Sovremennye zarubezhnye issledovaniya trevozhnosti intellektual'no odarennykh shkol'nikov [Modern Foreign Researches of Anxiety in Intellectually Gifted School Children] [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 97–106. DOI:10.17759/jmfp.2021100409 (In Russ.).
  10. Shcheblanova E.I. Svyaz' skorosti obrabotki informatsii i psikhologicheskikh kharakteristik shkol'nikov raznogo urovnya odarennosti [Relationship between the speed of information processing and the psychological characteristics of schoolchildren of different levels of giftedness]. Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of Psychology], 2019, no. 6, pp. 46–57. (In Russ.).
  11. Barbier K., Donche V., Verschueren K. Academic (Under)achievement of Intellectually Gifted Students in the Transition Between Primary and Secondary Education: An Individual Learner Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02533
  12. Differentiation for Gifted Learners: going beyond the basics / by Eds. Diane Heacox, and Richard M. Cash. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Free Spirit Publshing Inc., 2019. 18 p. Available at: https://www.freespirit.com/files/original/Differentiation-for-Gifted-Learners (Accessed 01.08.2022).
  13. Eker A. Competition Skills and Challenge Level Scale (CCS) in gifted and talented education: development, validity and reliability. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 2022. Vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 75–84. Available at: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jgedc/issue/68496/1080304 (Accessed 01.08.2022).
  14. Gallagher S.A., Gallagher J.J. Using Problem-based Learning to Explore Unseen Academic Potential. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 2013. Vol. 7, no. 1. DOI:10.7771/1541-5015.1322
  15. Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Lynch M.F. The Construct Validity of the Russian Version of the Modified Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A) among Elementary and Middle School Children. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 2020. Vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 16–34. DOI:10.11621/pir.2020.0301
  16. Gubbins E.J., Henshon S.E. The Frontier of Gifted Education: An Interview With E. Jean Gubbins. Roeper Review, 2022. Vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 69–72. DOI:10.1080/02783193.2022.2042886
  17. Kim M. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Enrichment Programs on Gifted Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 2016. Vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 102–116. DOI:10.1177/0016986216630607
  18. Karwowski M. School Does Not Kill Creativity. European Psychologist, 2021. Vol. 27, no. 3. DOI:10.1027/1016-9040/a000449
  19. Plucker J., Callahan C.M. Research on Giftedness and Gifted Education: Status of the Field and Considerations for the Future. Exceptional Children, 2014. Vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 390–406. DOI:10.1177/0014402914527244
  20. Reis S.M., Renzulli S.J., Renzulli J.S. Enrichment and Gifted Education Pedagogy to Develop Talents, Gifts, and Creative Productivity. Education Sciences, 2021. Vol. 11(10): 615. DOI:10.3390/educsci11100615
  21. Rogers K.B. Meta-analysis of 26 Forms of Academic Acceleration: Options for Elementary (Primary) and Secondary Learners with Gifts or Talents. In Wallace B. and Sisk D. (eds.), 2019, pp. 309–321. DOI:10.4135/9781526463074.n26
  22. Schneider M., Beeres K., Coban L., Merz S. et al. Associations of non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing with mathematical competence: a meta-analysis. Developmental Science, 2017. Vol. 20, no. 3. DOI:10.1111/desc.12372
  23. Subotnik R., Olszewski-Kubilius P., Worrell F.C. Environmental Factors and Personal Characteristics Interact to Yield High Performance in Domains. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02804
  24. Tikhomirova T., Kuzmina Y., Lysenkova I., Malykh S. The Relationship Between Non-symbolic and Symbolic Numerosity Representations in Elementary School: The Role of Intelligence. Frontiers in Psychology, 2019. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02724
  25. Yılmaz S., Tortop H.S. The Underachievement of Gifted Students. Journal of Gifted Education and Creativity, 2018. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1–9. Available at: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/839282 (Accessed 01.08.2022).

Information About the Authors

Natalia B. Shumakova, Doctor of Psychology, Leading Research Associate, Psychology of Giftedness Department, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Professor, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2843-6055, e-mail: n_shumakova@mail.ru