Sex and Gender Differences in Representations of Psychological Safety



The paper addresses the problem of sex and gender differences in representations of psy-chological safety. An empirical research was carried out to test the hypothesis that psychological safety is most often associated with health and the need for self-preservation which have certain specifics in men and women with different gender identities. The paper shows that men tend to associate safety with knowledge and control, while women tend to associate it with health and security. The influence of gender was found to be less significant than that of sex, and gender differences in representations of safety turned out to be similar to sex differences.

General Information

Journal rubric: Experimental Research

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Kharlamenkova N. E. Sex and Gender Differences in Representations of Psychological Safety. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2015. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 51–60. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Natalia E. Kharlamenkova, Doctor of Psychology, professor, Deputy Director for Scientific Work, Head of the Laboratory of Psychology of the development of the subject in normal and post-traumatic conditions, Institute of Psychology of Russian Academy of Science, Head of the Department of Personality Psychology of the Faculty of Psychology of the State Academic University of Humanities, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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