Gender Socialization at Senior Age



Objective. The study aims to identify and describe the content of gender phenomena that characterize the socialization of older men and women. Background. A noticeable increase in the number of people in the older age group actualizes the problem of studying the conditions and factors of the socialization process in old age, contributing to successful aging. A number of publications present the results of studies on the influence of some socio-psychological factors affecting the well-being of older people, for example, such as: informal education, socially significant and creative activities, certain personal characteristics, etc. However, studies of the life situation of older people, as a rule, do not include gender analysis, and such a significant socio-cultural factor for the socialization of men and women, as adherence to traditionalist or egalitarian gender norms, was not considered by researchers in relation to elderly people. Methodology. A gender approach was used as the main research methodology. Conclusions. The specifics of gender norms is revealed as a significant sociocultural factor in the socialization of males and females. The differences between the traditionalist normative model of male and female behavior from the egalitarian model are shown. The content of gender phenomena which are manifested in older men and women showing a strong commitment to traditional gender norms, is disclosed — such as double standard of aging, gender role conflict, gender self-objectification, existential-gender conflict. The relationship between the orientations of men and women towards a certain type of gender norms and their subjective psychological well-being in old age is revealed. The directions of further research on the gender socialization of the elderly are outlined.

General Information

Keywords: gender norms, traditionalist and egalitarian models of male and female behavior, double standard of aging, gender role conflict

Journal rubric: Theoretical Research

Article type: scientific article


For citation: Kletsina I.S. Gender Socialization at Senior Age. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2020. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 22–34. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2020110302. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


1. Andreeva G.M. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya [Social Psychology]. Uchebnik dlya vysshikh

Information About the Authors

Irina S. Kletsina, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St.Petersburg, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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