Features of the Psychological Well-Being of Russian and Armenian Students



Objective. The study and description of the specifics of the psychological well-being of Russian and Armenian students (on the example of students studying in Kostroma and Yerevan). Background. The problem of increasing the psychological well-being of students becomes especially relevant in the context of a decrease in resilience, vitality, adaptability, satisfaction with life and oneself among today’s youth. Research that is carried out in a cross-cultural approach is of particular importance. They make it possible to single out and describe universal and specific for certain ethno-cultural groups referents and features of students’ psychological well-being. Study design. The paper analyzes the features of the psychological well-being of Russian and Armenian students. We have established the relationship of the integral indicator of well-being with individual variables using correlation analysis. We also described the predictors of psychological well-being in Russian and Armenian students. Participants. The study sample consisted of 360 university students aged 17 to 28 years (M=19.9; SD=2.1), who were divided into two research groups according to the criterion of ethnic and cultural affiliation (Russians and Armenians). Measurements. The study was conducted using the “Scale of psychological well-being (RPWB)”; “Scales of subjective happiness”; “Scales of life satisfaction”; methods of color metaphors; self-assessment scales, “Innovative Competence”; test “Life-meaning orientations”. Results. The study established similarities and differences in the referents of psychological well-being among Russian and Armenian students. It is noted that the level of psychological well-being of students from different countries is below the normative values. This testifies to the general tendencies of a decrease in optimism among young people, faith in the future, in themselves and their capabilities. The paper also describes the specificity of correlations of psychological well-being referents in the Russian and Armenian samples. The psychological well-being of Armenian students is associated with the assessment of subjective well-being, the degree of independence from parents, health and life satisfaction; among Russian students — with a high assessment of the state of health, academic success, success in life and satisfaction with romantic relationships. In general, the meaningfulness of life is important in the perception of psychological well-being among students of different ethnic and cultural groups. At the same time, Armenian students have more pronounced life intentions and orientation, set clear goals for the future. Their focus is on self-development. The process of life appears to them filled with meaning and interest. Russian students are more satisfied with their lives in the present, although they are focused on raising their status and achieving success in the future. Conclusions. There are general cultural and cultural-specific trends in the psychological well-being of students studying in Russia and Armenia.

General Information

Keywords: students, socio-cultural environment, psychological well-being, subjective well-being, happiness, life satisfaction

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2022130209

Funding. The reported study was funded by RFBR and SC RA, project number 20-513-05005\20

Received: 18.08.2021


For citation: Samokhvalova A.G., Tikhomirova E.V., Vishnevskaya O.N., Shipova N., Asriyan E.V. Features of the Psychological Well-Being of Russian and Armenian Students. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2022. Vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 123–143. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2022130209. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Argail M. Psikhologiya schast’ya [Psychology of happiness]. 2-e izd. Saint Petersburg: Publ. Piter, 2003. 271 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Kochorova L.V., Skripov V.S., Slivka A.S. K voprosu o trevoge i depressii v molodezhnoi studencheskoi srede [Elektronnyi resurs] [On the issue of anxiety and depression in the youth student environment]. Nauka molodykh — Eruditio Juvenium = Science of the young — Eruditio Juvenium, 2020, no. 2. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/k-voprosu-o-trevoge-i-depressii-v-molodezhnoy-studencheskoy-srede (Accessed 15.08.2021). (In Russ.).
  3. Leont’ev D.A. Test smyslozhiznennykh orientatsii (SZhO) [Life Meaning Orientation Test]. Moscow: Publ. Smysl, 1992. 16 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Lepeshinskij N.N. Adaptaciya oprosnika «Shkala psihologicheskogo blagopoluchiya» K. Riff. [Adaptation of the questionnaire “Scale of psychological well-being” K. Riff]. Psihologicheskij zhurnal = Psychological Journal, 2007, no. 3, pp. 24—37. (In Russ.).
  5. Masharskaya O.S. Krosskul’turnye razlichiya sotsial’nykh predstavlenii studentov o blagopoluchii: Avtopef. diss. kand. psikhol. nauk [Cross-cultural differences in students‘ social perceptions of well-being. PhD (Psychology) Thesis]. Kursk, 2012. 20 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Nguen V.U. Psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie v’etnamskikh i rossiiskikh studentov v vuzakh (na primere g. Voronezh) [Elektronnyi resurs] [Psychological well-being of Vietnamese and Russian students in universities (on the example of Voronezh)]. Universum: Psikhologiya i obrazovanie: elektron. nauchn. zhurn. = Universum: Psychology and Education: electron. scientific. journal, 2019, no. 10(64). URL: http://7universum.com/ru/psy/archive/item/7837 (Accessed 15.08.2021). (In Russ.).
  7. Osin E.N., Leont’ev D.A. Aprobaciya russkoyazychnyh versij dvuh shkal ekspress-ocenki sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya [Elektronnyi resurs] [Approbation of Russian-language versions of two scales for rapid assessment of subjective well-being]. Materialy III Vserossijskogo sociologicheskogo kongressa «Sotsiologiya i obshchestvo: problemy i puti vzaimodeistviya» (Moskva 21—24 oktyabrya 2008 g.) [Proceedings of the III All-Russian Sociological Congress “Sociology and Society: Problems and Ways of Interaction”]. Moscow, 2008. URL: http://www.isras.ru/abstract_ bank/1210190841.pdf (Accessed 08.01.2022). (In Russ.).
  8. Bokhan T. et al. Osobennosti sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya studentov v usloviyakh obrazovatel’noi migratsii [Features of the subjective well-being of students in the conditions of educational migration]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social psychology and society, 2021. Vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59—76. DOI:10.17759/sps.2021120105 (In Russ.).
  9. Ryabinkina A.N., Varlamova M.A. Psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchiei sub”ektnost’ lichnosti studentov [Psychological well-being and subjectivity of students‘ personalities]. Obrazovanie i obshchestvo =Education and society, 2019, no. 5, pp. 109—121. (In Russ.).
  10. Samokhvalova A.G., Metc M.V. Mezhkul’turnye kommunikativnye trudnosti podrostkov-migrantov pervogo i vtorogo pokolenij: kross-kul’turnyj aspekt [Intercultural Communication Difficulties of Adolescent Migrants of the First and Second Generations: A Cross-Cultural Aspect]. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social psychology and society, 2020. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 149— 166. DOI:10.17759/sps (In Russ.).
  11. Samokhvalova A.G., Kulikov L.V., Vishnevskaya O.N. Perezhivanie podrostkami kommunikativnykh trudnostei v mezhkul’turnom obshchenii [Teenagers’ experience of communicative difficulties in intercultural communication]. Voprosy psikhologii = Questions of psychology, 2019, no. 4, pp. 100—114. (In Russ.).
  12. Samokhvalova A.G., Tihomirova E.A., Vishnevskaya O.N., Shipova N.S., Asriyan E.V. Strukturno-funkcional’naya model’ psihologicheskogo blagopoluchiya sovremennyh studentov [The structural-functional model of contemporary students’ psychological Well-being]. Rossijskij psihologicheskij zhurnal = Russian psychological journal, 2021. Vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 47—63. DOI:10.21702/rpj.2021/4/4 (In Russ.).
  13. Seligman M. Novaya pozitivnaya psikhologiya [New positive psychology]. Kyiv: Publ. Sofiya, 2006. 368 p. (In Russ.).
  14. Sergienko E.A., Eidel’man G.N. Vozrastnaya identifikatsiya sovremennoi molodezhi kak factor samodeterminatsii [Age identification of modern youth as a factor of self-determination]. Obrazovanie I samorazvitie = Education and self-development, 2015. Vol. 3, no. 45, pp. 62—72. (In Russ.).
  15. Solomin I.L. Metodika psihosemanticheskoj ekspress-diagnostiki motivacii [Methods of psychosemantic express diagnostics of motivation]. SHkol’nye tekhnologii = School technology, 2008, no. 1, pр. 159—168. (In Russ.).
  16. Chebotareva E.Yu. Kross-kul’turnye osobennosti koping-strategii rossiiskikh i frantsuzskikh studentov v kontekste psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya [Cross-cultural features of coping strategies of Russian and French students in the context of psychological well-being]. Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya. Akmeologiya obrazovaniya. Psikhologiya razvitiya = Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series: Acmeology of education. Developmental psychology], 2018. Vol. 7, no. 2(26), pp. 156—163. DOI:10.18500/2304-9790-2018-7-2-156-163 (In Russ.).
  17. Shutenko E.N. Psikhologicheskoe zdorov’e molodezhi v usloviyakh sotsiokul’turnykh transformatsi i sovremennogo obshchestva [Elektronnyi resurs] [Psychological health of youth in the conditions of socio-cultural transformations of modern society]. Psikholog = Psychologist, 2018, no. 3, pp. 32—40. URL: https://nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=27044 (Accessed 15.08.2021). (In Russ.).
  18. Eidel’man A.B. Osobennosti sub”ektivnogo vozrasta i psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya v molodom vozraste [Features of subjective age and psychological well-being at a young age]. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser.: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsiokinetika = Vestnik of Kostroma State University. Series: Pedagogy. Psychology. Sociokinetics], 2019, no. 2, рр. 30—35. (In Russ.).
  19. Bethel A., Ward C., Fetvadjiev V.H. Cross-Cultural Transition and Psychological Adaptation of International Students: The Mediating Role of Host National Connectedness. Front. Educ, 2020. Vol. 5. DOI:10.3389/feduc.2020.539950
  20. Bobic M., Davis E., Cunningham R. The Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory: Validity Issues, Practical Questions. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 1999. Vol. 19, pp. 18—31. DOI:10.1177/0734371X9901900204
  21. Bonn G., Tafarodi R.W. Visualizing the good life: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2013. Vol. 14(6), pp. 1839—1856. DOI:10.1007/s10902-012-9412-9
  22. Chen G., Martin R.A. A comparison of humor styles, coping humor, and mental health between Chinese and Canadian university students. Humor Int. J. Humor Res, 2007. Vol. 20, pp. 215—234. DOI:10.1515/HUMOR.2007.011
  23. Schofield M.J. et al. Depressive symptoms among Australian university students: Who is at risk? Australian Psychologist, 2016. Vol. 5(2), pp. 135—144. DOI:10.1111/ap.12129
  24. Diener E.D., Emmons R.A., Larsen R.J., Griffin S. The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1985. Vol. 49(1), pp. 71—75. DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
  25. Diener E., Ng W., Harter J., Arora R. Wealth and happiness across the world: Material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2010. Vol. 99, pp. 52—61. DOI:10.1037/a0018066
  26. Diener E., Oishi S., Lucas R.E. Personality, Culture, and Subjective Well-Being: Emotional and Cognitive Evaluations of Life. Annual Review of Psychology, 2003. Vol. 54(1), pp. 403—425. DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145056
  27. Iwamoto D., Chun H. Stress, anxiety and depression: An analysis of higher education students. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2019. Vol. 8(3), pp. 47—52.
  28. Kalvans E. Students’ psychological well-being, its demographic and social determinants. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 2020. Vol. 7. DOI:10.17770/sie2020vol7.4848
  29. Oishi S., Schimmack U. Culture and well-being: A new inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2010. Vol. 5, pp. 463—471. DOI:10.1177/1745691610375561
  30. Pflug J. Folk theories of happiness: A cross-cultural comparison of conceptions of happiness in Germany and South Africa. Social Indicators Research, 2009. Vol. 92, pp. 551—563. DOI:10.1007/ s11205-008-9306-8
  31. Suh E.M., Choi S. Predictors of subjective well-being across cultures [Electronic resource]. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, L. Tay (Eds.). Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers, 2018. URL: https://www.nobascholar.com/chapters/45/download.pdf (Accessed 28.07.2021)
  32. Tay L., Morrison M., Diener E. Living among the affluent: Boon or bane? Psychological Science, 2014. Vol. 25, pp. 1235—1241. DOI:10.1177/0956797614525786
  33. Germani A. et al. The link between individualism-collectivism and life satisfaction among emerging adults from four countries. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2021. Vol. 13, pp. 437—453. DOI:10.1111/aphw.12259

Information About the Authors

Anna G. Samokhvalova, Doctor of Psychology, Assistant Professor, Director of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology, Kostroma State University, Kostroma, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4401-053X, e-mail: samohvalova@kmtn.ru

Elena V. Tikhomirova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of General and Social Psychology, Kostroma State University, Kostroma, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3844-4622, e-mail: tichomirowa82@mail.ru

Oksana N. Vishnevskaya, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogy and Acmeology of Personality, Kostroma State University, Kostroma, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1591-0077, e-mail: o_vishnevskaya@ksu.edu.ru

Natalya Shipova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Special Pedagogy and Psychology, Kostroma State University, Kostroma, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0741-1297, e-mail: ns.shipova@yandex.ru

Elina V. Asriyan, PhD in Psychology, Vice-Rector for Humanities and Social Specialties, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4970-3527, e-mail: elina.asriyan@gmail.com



Total: 719
Previous month: 23
Current month: 15


Total: 272
Previous month: 5
Current month: 6