The Subjective Well-being Policy: Case Studies and Its Relevance in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Objective. This study aims to examine the implementation and optimization of subjective well-being as a constituent of policymaking.
Background. Subjective well-being, frequently considered in policymaking, has not been widely used and optimally implemented in Indonesia. Most of the policymaking processes only consider economic indicators and ignore immaterial aspects.
Study design. This study employed a qualitative and case study approach. It involves the Statistics Indonesia and the Provincial Government of the Special Region of Yogyakarta as the data collection bases. In addition, it investigated the policy implementation and the factual application of subjective well-being.
Measurements. The researchers collected the data through interviews, documentation, and focus group discussion. All the data were validated through triangulation.
Result. The issue of happiness is rarely highlighted in policymaking. In fact, happiness is a component that is able to meet the psychological and spiritual needs of society. At the same time, this is supported by the existence of a GDP indicator that does not really represent the welfare of a region, and even is able to control people's satisfaction through policymaking. The Special Region of Yogyakarta is one of the areas that is suitable for pilots in implementing the issue of happiness in policymaking, although in practice there are still variables that are not in line with the planning process document. This pilot pays attention to immaterial supporting elements such as policymaker agreements, social inclusivity, cultural capital, and social capital. The Special Region of Yogyakarta, which has also implemented considerations on the issue of happiness, has shown positive significance in the aspects of people's lives.
Conclusions. This study concludes that the variables on the happiness index are not affiliated with several planning documents in the Province of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. Therefore, studies regarding the happiness aspect, for example, welcoming inclusiveness in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, are essential. In addition, the cultural aspect, especially the society’s acceptance of material aspects (life satisfaction), has contributed to the establishment of subjective well-being in the province. This study recommends further study of obstacles in applying the happiness index and subjective well-being in policy formulation.
Keywords: happiness index; happiness statistic; Indonesia; policymaking; subjective well-being
Journal rubric: Applied Research and Practice
Article type: scientific article
For citation: Aripin S., Pierewan A.C., Susanti S.S., Salmon I.P.P. The Subjective Well-being Policy: Case Studies and Its Relevance in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2023. Vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 152–168. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2023140210.
Issues and Indicators of Happiness: Process Review
- Material and non-material well-being;
- Mental and physical health, education and knowledge, occupation, and living condition ;
- Proper self-functioning [27; 40];
- Sustainable assessment of well-being attainment based on past and future consideration;
- Individual or society’s essential experience.
- Objective indicator regarding life domain is measured prior to subjective indicator (satisfaction).
- Indicator of life satisfaction as happiness rate measurement comprises ten life domains: a) health; b) education; c) job/main activity; d) family income; e) environmental quality; f) security; g) social connection; h) family harmony; i) availability of leisure time; j) housing conditions and facilities .
- In OECD, one excluded indicator is democracy. OECD is an international organization based in Paris, France, with members from 36 countries in which only 30 member countries adhere to the principles of representative democracy and free market economy.
- The 2017 SPTK’ objective and subjective indicators expand along with global development.
- The evaluation of national development is beyond the GDP (not only based on economic aspect) due to:
- Limited economic indicator in representing well-being;
- The need for greater attention to social aspects in the development;
- The need for happiness index as a social development indicator.
- Self-evaluation by society regarding their experience and expectation.
Mainstreaming the Policy of Happiness in the Special Region of Yogyakarta
Subjective Well-Being in the Special Region of Yogyakarta: Empirical Review
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