Developmental Language Disorder: Considerations for Implementing School-Based Screenings 346
Keywords: Developmental Language Disorder, screening, implementation science
Column: Theoretical research
Funding. The research reported here was supported, in part, by the Institute of Education Sciences (Grant No. R305B200020) to the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State University. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the funding agencies or universities.
Acknowledgements. The authors thank Dr. Hugh Catts and Dr. Tiffany P. Hogan for their guidance in preparing this article
Before learning to read and write, children must first
develop the necessary language skills which lay the foundation for those later
abilities. Language is the ability to understand and communicate thoughts and
ideas in spoken, written, and/or signed form. For most children, the process of
language acquisition is easy, effortless, and rapid. For example, a child moves
from babbling to single words, then to two-word phrases, and then to full
sentences in the timespan of approximately three years. However, language
acquisition for some children is not as easy, effortless, or rapid. These
children may present with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD).
DLD is characterized by difficulties in
understanding and/or producing spoken language in the absence of other medical
conditions, such as hearing loss, traumatic brain injury, or cognitive
impairment . DLD is a common condition affecting approximately 7.5% of the
school-age population, or about 1 in 15 children [48; 64]. DLD is a life-long
condition that persists into late adolescence and adulthood. It often co-occurs
with other developmental disorders, such as speech sound disorder (SSD),
dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum
disorder (ASD) [2; 15; 54–56; 59]. DLD is not associated with one single cause
but rather with the interactions of multiple genetic, biological, and
environmental risk factors. Some of those factors associated with DLD are
family history of language delays, gender (i.e., more common in boys than in
girls), prenatal environment, parental education, and socioeconomic status
DLD can have a significant impact on children’s
educational progress and socio-emotional development. Due to the heavy language
demands of academic content areas, children with DLD are six times more likely
to have reading disabilities and four times more likely to have math
disabilities than children without language disorders [6; 19; 63]. They also
struggle with navigating peer relationships and making and maintaining
friendships . Research shows that children with DLD are often at a higher
risk to experience emotional difficulties, such as decreased self-regulation,
symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, low self-esteem, and low self-confidence
[16; 17; 25].
Despite being one of the most common
developmental conditions, most people do not know about DLD. The lack of
awareness means that often children with DLD are left unidentified and they are
at higher levels of risk for poor educational and life outcomes. Recent efforts
to raise awareness of DLD have brought attention to the need for systematic
approaches to school-based identification and prevention of learning
difficulties . New research supports the use of universal language screening
in the early grades to identify children at risk of DLD [5; 31]. However, the
success of implementing and sustaining early screening depends on the capacity
and readiness of schools to support such process . In the current article,
we discuss the utility of implementation science frameworks to examine
contextual factors that can influence implementation and to develop an
effective plan for school-based adoption and maintenance of universal screening
for DLD. We must clarify that universal screening alone does not solve the
problem of under-identification of DLD. Additional steps, such as targeted
interventions, continuous progress monitoring, and further assessments are
necessary to support children at risk of DLD and to prevent school failure.
However, we will only focus on universal screening because we think that it is
an important first step toward the early identification of children at risk of
DLD and the appropriate use of school resources for their remediation. In the
remainder of this article, we will: (1) describe oral and written language
difficulties in DLD that affect learning and educational progress, (2) discuss
under-identification of DLD and recent efforts to address it, with a focus on
early language screenings, and (3) discuss how frameworks from implementation
science can guide uptake of evidence-based screening practices in elementary
The Impact of DLD on Learning
DLD is a heterogeneous disorder and children demonstrate
difficulties with various aspects of spoken language. Difficulties with
morphology and syntax are very common and they include omission of markers for
tense and agreement (e.g., regular past tense inflection -ed and third person
singular inflection -s), omission of articles (i.e., a, an, the), omission of
the auxiliary and copula forms of be (e.g., am, is, are), difficulty
understanding passive sentences (e.g., the boy was pushed by the girl),
difficulty understanding pronominal sentences (e.g., “Mowgli says Baloo Bear is
tickling himself”), difficulty using adverbial and relative clauses, and
difficulty with wh-question formation [8; 9; 36; 44; 61]. Overall, children
with DLD use fewer complex sentences in conversation and expository discourse
compared to their age-matched peers [38; 47].
Along with deficits in morphology and syntax,
children with DLD often demonstrate deficits in vocabulary and phonological
acquisition. Compared to age-matched peers, children with DLD have smaller
vocabularies, have difficulty naming objects, and instead use words that lack
specificity (e.g., thing, stuff), and require more exposures to learn new words
[29; 42; 56; 57]. Problems with phonological acquisition include slower
acquisition of consonants and complex syllable structures and use of
simplification processes (e.g., cluster reduction or omission of unstressed
syllable) for a longer time than their age-matched peers [5; 49].
Deficits in written language are also common in children
with DLD. In order to be
a successful reader, one must be able to accurately decode letter strings into
pronounceable words and derive meaning from spoken language. This is the
premise behind the Simple View of Reading, defining reading comprehension as
the product of word decoding and language comprehension [28; 34]. Word decoding
depends on children’s ability to appreciate and manipulate sounds in spoken
syllables and words (i.e., phonological awareness) and to connect sounds with
letters [11; 26]. Language comprehension depends on foundational language
skills, such as vocabulary and grammar, higher level language skills, such as
inferencing, comprehension monitoring, and text structure knowledge, and
background knowledge [32; 33]. According to the Simple View of Reading, poor
reading comprehension results from deficits in either or both domains. Thus, it
is not surprising that many children with DLD are at risk for reading
comprehension problems [14; 46]. Additionally, it is estimated that about 50%
of children with DLD have co-occurring word decoding problems or dyslexia
Studies of the spelling outcomes of children with DLD
indicate that they generally struggle with spelling more than their age-matched
peers; however, the presence of a concomitant reading disability (i.e.,
dyslexia) increases the severity of their spelling deficits [35; 40]. In terms
of writing, children with DLD tend to produce shorter stories that contain
fewer complex sentences, less diverse vocabulary, and many grammatical errors
22; 37; 58].
Removing Barriers to the Under-Identification of
In general, people have limited understanding of language,
how language develops, and what language disorders look like. DLD is often
referred to as the “common but hidden” condition because often parents and
teachers do not understand early signs of language difficulties and they might
misinterpret them as shyness, laziness, or disinterest. Thus, many children
with DLD are left unidentified and without appropriate intervention. An
epidemiological study on the prevalence of DLD in kindergarten children found
that the number of unidentified children can go up to 70% . Interestingly,
the presence of
co-occurring conditions in children with DLD (e.g., ADHD, speech articulation
problems) can function as a protective factor as it increases the likelihood
for earlier identification and intervention relative to cases with DLD only.
For example, the presence of ADHD in children with DLD appears to be a strong
predictor of earlier referral and service provision, because unlike the
“hidden” symptoms of DLD, behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD are
fairly noticeable by practitioners [55; 69].
The good news is that over the last few years, we have
witnessed increasing efforts to raise awareness of DLD [12; 13]. Awareness
campaigns have brought together multidisciplinary teams to (1) help the general
public understand the what, why, and how of DLD, (2) disseminate evidence-based
resources for parents, educators, and researchers, (3) influence legislative
efforts at the state and national levels and (4) establish accountability for
communication rights and service provision. Formal organizations, such as
DLDandMe (dldandme.org), Raising Awareness of Developmental Language Disorder
(RADLD; radld.org), and National Association of Professionals concerned with
Language Impairment in Children (NAPLIC; naplic.org), are at the forefront of
Along with raising awareness, it is important to improve
school-based practices for identifying and supporting children with DLD. In the
US, DLD is diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) after a parent, a
teacher, or other professional
(e.g., pediatrician) raises concerns about a child’s language development.
However, this approach might fail to address the under-identification problem,
for two reasons. First, children with DLD might go unnoticed for a long time
before someone raises concerns about their language, resulting in missed
opportunities for early remediation. Second, only children with severe DLD are
likely to be noticed by parents or teachers and referred for assessment,
leaving out a large proportion of children with moderate language delays who
may not qualify for special education services but who still show poor academic
achievement [14; 52].
Recent publications have argued that universal screening of
oral language in the early grades (as early as preschool and kindergarten) is a
promising solution for improving under-identification of DLD [3; 4; 31]. As
with any other type of health screening
(e.g., diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer), language screening can identify
risk of DLD or in other words, the likelihood that a child will have DLD.
Screening measures are usually brief and focus on early risk factors associated
with a condition. For example, some commercially available language screeners
focus on children’s ability to understand and use grammatical structures (e.g.,
past tense), to repeat sentences, and to follow multi-step directions (for a
review of available screeners and specifications, see the open-source document
created by Bao and Hogan, ). Preventative interventions and progress
monitoring are necessary next steps to mitigate early learning difficulties and
reduce the number of children who are referred for special education services
. Such systematic approaches might especially benefit children with
moderate language delays who are often missed in the traditional referral
The concept of universal screening is not new to schools in
the US. Elementary schools commonly use universal screening within a multi-tier
approach, such as Response to Intervention (RtI), to identify students with
reading and math difficulties [27; 65]. RtI allows schools to identify students
at risk of poor learning outcomes early and to provide different levels of
instructional interventions, based on their needs. In addition, most states in
the US have recently passed laws mandating early screening to identify children
with dyslexia [67; 68]. Similar models can be created to assess for oral
language difficulties and improve under-identification of DLD. To this end,
frameworks commonly used in implementation science can guide school teams in
developing a deliberate process for the successful adoption and maintenance of
language screening in the early grades.
Implementing Universal Screening for DLD
In recent years, there has been growing interest in using
implementation science to understand and improve the conditions affecting
delivery of evidence-based programs in education [18; 30]. Implementation
science is defined as "the scientific study of methods to promote the
systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based practices into
routine practice" [21, p. 1]. Implementation science differs from traditional
research as it focuses on the process of implementation and contextual
characteristics that influence the likelihood of an innovation to be adopted
and maintained in everyday practice. It is not enough for an innovation to have
robust empirical evidence to be successfully implemented in a particular
context. The context itself must be ready to accept the innovation. This latter
prerequisite is often overlooked in traditional research, which explains in
part why there is a considerable gap between what we know works and what
actually works. The same problem applies to universal language screening for
DLD. Having appropriate language measures to identify children at risk of DLD
is only one part of the equation. We must also ensure that schools have the
necessary infrastructure to systematically administer language
There are numerous frameworks in implementation science and,
in general, they delineate the process by which we can examine contextual
barriers and facilitators and apply relevant strategies to improve
implementation of an innovation [45; 66]. The process of implementation usually
begins with the exploration phase, during which teams explore the makeup of the
context, understand strengths and weaknesses and interactions across system
levels (i.e., inner context, outer context), determine specific needs, and find
evidence-based resources to match those needs [1; 20; 23; 43; 53]. Before
implementing language screenings, the exploration phase allows us to address
important questions, such as student demographics (e.g., number of English
Language Learners), resources (e.g., personnel, materials, data management
systems), and capacity to conduct school- or district-wide screenings. This
initial information can guide the selection of appropriate language measures.
For example, for a district with a large population of English Language
Learners, language assessments that can distinguish language disorder from
language difference should be preferred [50; 51]. Additional factors to
consider during exploration are quality of existing service delivery for
students with DLD, staff characteristics
(e.g., knowledge, skills, attitudes, buy-in), interprofessional collaboration,
readiness for change, and administrative/leadership support. Finally, we must
understand how elements of the outer context, such as advocacy groups (e.g.,
DLDandMe), policies (e.g., Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or
IDEA), funding, and networks with local and national organizations (e.g.,
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association or ASHA) influence the way schools
operate. For example, funding opportunities and educational policies must align
to support schools in their efforts to serve children with DLD, which brings us
back to the importance of advocating and educating the general public about DLD
. The exploration phase allows implementation teams to become intimately
familiar with school contexts and create individualized implementation plans
that match to their language screening needs.
In the next phase, teams use various strategies to prepare
for implementation, such as acquiring necessary resources (e.g., language
screeners), building capacity, training personnel, developing and implementing
tools for data management and quality monitoring, and setting up meetings with
stakeholders (e.g., school administrators, teachers, clinicians, parents) to
discuss implementation plans [23; 53]. Training and coaching personnel (e.g.,
teachers, SLPs) is an important part of the preparation phase  and should
concentrate on theoretical foundations of language development, DLD, and
administration and interpretation of language screenings. Moreover, training
should increase competence in data management to facilitate collection and
processing of screening data. Finally, the preparation phase should involve the
development of systematic processes to evaluate implementation of language
screening and to identify unanticipated barriers and solutions. For example,
the administration of a particular language screener might take longer than
expected so implementation teams must examine whether this is due to training
gaps or it is truly an issue with time allocation. Rapid problem-solving cycles
are necessary to prevent delays in the implementation process and re-emergence
of the same problems [23; 43].
In the final phase, all systems and processes are expected
to be in place to support implementation efforts. During implementation, school
personnel should consider the fidelity of administration of the chosen DLD
screener and the overall effectiveness of the process [20; 23]. In addition,
new barriers must be accounted for to inform the nature and extent of necessary
adjustments in the preparation phase [20; 23]. Some examples of barriers are
longer administration times than expected, misunderstandings among staff about
certain administration rules (e.g., some teachers provide more prompts than
what is allowed), scoring errors, difficulties with class management during the
screening of individual students, absent students, and unresponsive students.
Finally, school personnel should be given opportunities to share their feedback
and perceptions of the implementation process . In general, the more
information schools have about what went well and what did no go well during
the implementation of early language screening, the better they can use it to
make improvements. The implementation of universal screening for DLD is a
complex process and its success depends on appropriate and context-specific
adjustments, continuous evaluation and improvement, and clear communication
DLD is a common but unknown condition affecting children’s
educational and life opportunities. Universal language screenings can improve
identification of DLD in the early grades, but we must carefully consider
contextual factors that are likely to influence the implementation process. We
discussed the utility of implementation science frameworks in evaluating school
contexts and facilitating the uptake of universal screening for DLD. More work
is needed to extend the application of such frameworks in schools to identify
children with DLD and help them access learning in the classroom.
 DLD is a
new term recommended by the CATALISE group to refer to children who were
previously labeled as having Specific Language Impairment (SLI) [12; 13; 36].
McGregor et al. provide a thorough discussion on the similarities and
differences of the terms DLD and SLI, including diagnostic implications,
consideration of co-occurring conditions, and nonverbal IQ criteria . While
many of the research studies referenced in this paper were based on the term
SLI, we will use the term DLD in line with recent efforts to raise awareness
about this condition and to improve clinical and educational practices.
Aarons G.A., Hurlburt M., Horwitz S.M. Advancing a
conceptual model of evidence-based practice implementation in public service
sectors. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health
Services Research, 2011. Vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 4–23. DOI:
Adlof S.M., Hogan T.P. Understanding dyslexia in the
context of developmental language disorders. Language, Speech, and Hearing
Services in Schools, 2018. Vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 762–773. DOI:
Adlof S.M., Hogan T.P. If we don’t look, we won’t see:
Measuring language development to inform literacy instruction. Policy
Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2019. Vol. 6, no. 2, pp.
210–217. DOI: 10.1177/2372732219839075
Adlof S.M., Scoggins J., Brazendale A. et al. Identifying
children at risk for language impairment or dyslexia with group-administered
measures. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2017. Vol.
60, no. 12, pp. 3507–3522. DOI: 10.1044/2017_JSLHR-L-16-0473
Aguilar-Mediavilla E.M., Sanz-Torrent M., Serra-Raventós
M. A comparative study of the phonology of pre-school children with specific
language impairment (SLI), language delay (LD) and normal acquisition.
Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 2002. Vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 573–596.
Alt M., Arizmendi G.D., Beal C.R. The relationship between
mathematics and language: Academic implications for children with specific
language impairment and English language learners. Language, Speech, and
Hearing Services in Schools, 2014. Vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 220–233. DOI:
Bao X., Hogan T.P. A review of commercially available
screening tests used to identify risk of Developmental Language Disorder (DLD).
Manuscript in preparation, 2020. URL:
Bedore L.M., Leonard L.B. Specific language impairment and
grammatical morphology: A discriminant function analysis. Journal of Speech,
Language, and Hearing Research, 1998. Vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1185–1192. DOI:
Bedore L.M., Leonard, L.B. Grammatical morphology deficits
in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Journal of
Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2001. Vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 905–924.
Bishop D.V.M., Clarkson B. Written language as a window
into residual language deficits: A study of children with persistent and
residual speech and language impairments. Cortex, 2003. Vol. 29, no. 2,
pp. 215–237. DOI: 10.1016/s0010-9452(08)70106-0
Bishop A.G., League M.B. Identifying a multivariate
screening model to predict reading difficulties at the onset of kindergarten: A
longitudinal analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 2006. Vol. 29, pp.
235–252. DOI: 10.2307/30035552
Bishop D.V.M., Snowling M.J., Thompson P.A. et al.
CATALISE: A multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study.
Identifying language impairments in children. PLOS one, 2016, vol. 11,
no. 7, pp. 1–26. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158753
Bishop D.V.M., Snowling M.J., Thompson P.A. et al. Phase 2
A multinational and multidisciplinary Delphi consensus study of problems with
language development: Terminology. Journal of Child Psychology and
Psychiatry, 2017. Vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1068–1080. DOI:
Catts H.W., Adlof S.M., Weismer S.E. Language deficits in
A case for the simple view of reading. Journal of Speech, Language, and
Hearing Research, 2006. Vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 278–293. DOI:
Catts H.W., Hogan T.P., Adlof S.M. Developmental changes
in reading and reading disabilities. In H.W. Catts, A.G. Kamhi (Eds.),
Connections between language and reading disabilities. Mahwah, NJ:
Erlbaum Associates, 2005, pp. 2025–2040. DOI: 10.4324 /9781410612052-9
Conti‐Ramsden G., Botting N. Emotional health in
adolescents with and without
a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology
& Psychiatry, 2008. Vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 516–525. DOI:
Conti-Ramsden G., Mok P.L.H., Pickles A. et al.
Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): Strengths and
difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning. Research in
Developmental Disabilities, 2013. Vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 4161–4169. DOI:
Cook B.G., Odom S.L. Evidence-based practices and
implementation science in special education. Exceptional Children, 2013.
Vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 135–144. DOI: 10.1177/001440291307900201
Cross A.M., Joanisse M.F., Archibald L.M. Mathematical
abilities in children with developmental language disorder. Language,
Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 2019. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 150–163.
Damschroder L.J., Aron D.C., Keith R.E. et al. Fostering
implementation of health services research findings into practice: A
consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implementation
Science, 2009. Vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–15. DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-50
Eccles M.P., Mittman, B.S. Welcome to implementation
science. Implementation Science. Vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–3. DOI:
Fey M.E., Catts H.W., Proctor-Williams K. et al. Oral and
written story composition skills of children with language impairment.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2004, vol. 47, no. 6,
pp. 1301–1318. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2004/098)
Fixsen D.L., Blase K.A., Van Dyke M.K. Implementation
practice and science. Chapel Hill, NC: Active Implementation Research Network,
Fletcher J.M., Vaughn S. Response to intervention:
Preventing and remediating academic difficulties. Child Development
Perspectives, 2009. Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 30–37.
Gallagher T.M. Interrelationships among children's
language, behavior, and emotional problems. Topics in Language
Disorders, 1999. Vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1–15. DOI:
Georgiou G., Parrila R., Kirby J. Rapid naming speed
components and early reading acquisition. Scientific Studies of Reading,
2006. Vol. 10, pp. 199–220. DOI: 10.1207/ s1532799xssr1002_4
Gersten R., Beckmann S., Clarke B. et al. Assisting
students struggling with mathematics: Response to intervention (RtI) for
elementary and middle schools. Institute of Education Sciences Practice Guide,
U.S. Department of Education, 2009. 98 p.
Gough P.B., Tunmer W.E. Decoding, reading, and reading
disability. Remedial and Special Education, 1986. Vol. 7, no. 1, pp.
6–10. DOI: 10.1177/074193258600700104
Gray S. Word-learning by preschoolers with specific
language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,
2003. Vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 56–67. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2003/005)
Halle T., Metz A., Martinez-Beck I. Applying
implementation science in early childhood programs and systems. Baltimore, MD:
Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company, 2013. 360 p.
Hendricks A.E., Adlof S.M., Alonzo C.N. et al. Identifying
children at risk for developmental language disorder using a brief,
whole-classroom screen. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Research, 2019. Vol. 62, pp. 896–908. DOI:
Hogan T.P., Adlof S.M., Alonzo C.N. On the importance of
listening comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language
Pathology, 2014. Vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 199–207.
Hogan T.P. Bridges M.S., Justice L. et al. Increasing
higher level language skills to improve reading comprehension. Focus on
Exceptional Children, 2011. Vol. 44, no. 3,
pp. 1–20. DOI: 10.17161/fec.v44i3.6688
Hoover W.A., Gough P.B. The simple view of reading.
Reading and Writing, 1990. Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 127–160. DOI:
Joye N., Brocb L., Olive T. et al. Spelling performance in
children with developmental language disorder: A meta-analysis across European
languages. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2019. Vol. 23, no. 2, pp.
129–160. DOI: 10.1080/10888438. 2018.1491584
Leonard L.B. Children with specific language impairment.
2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014.
Mackie C, Dockrell J.E. The nature of written language
deficits in children with SLI: Research note. Journal of Speech, Language
& Hearing Research
, 2004. Vol. 47, no. 6,
pp. 1469–1483. DOI:
Marinellie S.A. Complex syntax used by school-age children
with specific language impairment (SLI) in child–adult conversation. Journal
of Communication Disorders, 2004. Vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 517–533. DOI:
McArthur G.M., Hogben J.H., Edwards V.T. et al. On the
“specifics” of specific reading disability and specific language impairment.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 2000.
Vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 869–874. DOI: 10.1111/1469-7610.00674
McCarthy J.H., Hogan T.P., Catts H.W. Is weak oral
language associated with poor spelling in school-age children with specific
language impairment, dyslexia or both? Clinical Linguistics &
Phonetics, 2012. Vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 791–805. DOI: 10.3109/02699206.
McGregor K.K., Goffman L., Van Horne A. et al.
Developmental Language Disorder: Applications for advocacy, research, and
clinical service. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups,
2020. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 38–46.
McGregor K.K., Oleson J., Bahnsen A. et al. Children with
developmental language impairment have vocabulary deficits characterized by
limited breadth and depth. International Journal of Language &
Communication Disorders, 2013. Vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 307–319. DOI:
Metz A., Halle T., Bartley L. The key components of
successful implementation. In
T. Halle, A. Metz, I. Martinez-Beck (Eds.), Applying Implementation Science
in Early Childhood Programs and Systems. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes
Publishing Company, 2013. Pp. 21–42.
Montgomery J.W., Evan, J.L. Complex sentence comprehension
and working memory in children with specific language impairment. Journal of
Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2009. Vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 269–288.
Moullin J.C., Sabater-Hernández D., Fernandez-Llimos F. et
al. A systematic review of implementation frameworks of innovations in
healthcare and resulting generic implementation framework. Health Research
Policy and Systems, 2015. Vol. 13, no. 1,
pp. 1–11. DOI: 10.1186/s12961-015-0005-z
Nation K., Clarke P., Marshall C.M. et al. Hidden language
impairments in children: Parallels between poor reading comprehension and
specific language impairment? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Research, 2004. Vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 199–211.
Nippold M.A., Mansfield T.C., Billow J.L. et al.
Expository discourse in adolescents with language impairments: Examining
syntactic development. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology,
2008. Vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 356–366. DOI: 10.1044/1058-0360(2008/07-0049)
Norbury C.F. Gooch D., Baird G. et al. Younger children
experience lower levels of language competence and academic progress in the
first year of school: Evidence from
a population study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2016.
Vol. 57, pp. 65–73. DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.12431
Orsolini M., Sechi E., Maronato C. et al. Nature of
phonological delay in children with specific language impairment.
International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders,
2001. Vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 63–90. DOI: 10.1080/13682820150217572
Petersen D.B., Spencer T.D. The narrative language
measures: Tools for language screening, progress monitoring, and intervention
planning. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 2012. Vol.
19, no. 4, pp. 119–129. DOI: 10.1044/lle19.4.119
Petersen D.B., Spencer T.D. CUBED. Language Dynamics
Group, 2016. URL:
www.languagedynamicsgroup.com (Accessed: 20.09.2020)
Petscher Y., Justice L.M., Hogan T.P. Modeling the early
language trajectory of language development when the measures change and its
relation to poor reading comprehension. Child Development, 2018. Vol.
89, pp. 2136–2156. DOI: 10.1111/ cdev.12880
Powell B.J., Waltz T.J., Chinman M.J. et al. A refined
compilation of implementation strategies: Results from the Expert
Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. Implementation
Science, 2015. Vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 21–35. DOI:
Redmond S.M. Language impairment in the
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder context. Journal of Speech,
Language, and Hearing Research, 2016. Vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 133–142. DOI:
Redmond S.M., Ash A.C., Hogan T.P. Consequences of
co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on children's language
impairments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools,
2015.Vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 68–80. DOI: 10.1044/2014_LSHSS-14-0045
Rice M.L. Specific language impairment, nonverbal IQ,
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear
implants, bilingualism, and dialectal variants: Defining the boundaries,
clarifying clinical conditions, and sorting out causes. Journal of Speech,
Language, and Hearing Research, 2016. Vol. 59, no. 1,
pp. 122–132. DOI: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-15-0255
Rice M.L., Oetting J.B., Marquis J. et al. Frequency of
input effects on word comprehension of children with specific language
impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1994.
Vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 106–122. DOI: 10.1044/jshr.3701.106
Scott C.M., Windsor J. General language performance
measures in spoken and written narrative and expository discourse of school-age
children with language learning disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language,
and Hearing Research, 2000. Vol. 43, no. 2,
pp. 324–339. DOI: 10.1044/jslhr.4302.324
Shriberg L.D., Tomblin J.B., McSweeny J.L. Prevalence of
speech delay in 6-year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment.
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1999. Vol. 42, no. 6,
pp. 1461–1481. DOI: 10.1044/jslhr.4206.1461
Snyder P.A., Hemmeter M.L., Fox L. Supporting
implementation of evidence-based practices through practice-based coaching.
Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 2015. Vol. 35, no. 3, pp.
133–143. DOI: 10.1177/0271121415594925
Stavrakaki S. Comprehension of reversible relative clauses
in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children.
Brain and Language, 2001. Vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 419–431.
St Clair M.C., Forrest C., Goh Kok Yew S. et al. Early
risk factors and emotional difficulties in children at risk of developmental
language disorder: A population cohort study. Journal of Speech, Language,
and Hearing Research, 2019. Vol. 62, no. 8,
pp. 2750–2771. DOI: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0061
Stoeckel R.E., Colligan R.C., Barbaresi W.J. et al. Early
speech-language impairment and risk for written language disorder: A
population-based study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral
Pediatrics, 2013. Vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 38–44. DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e
Tomblin J.B., Records N.L., Buckwalter P. et al.
Prevalence of specific language impairment in kindergarten children. Journal
of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1997. Vol. 40, no. 6, pp.
1245–1260. DOI: 10.1044/jslhr.4006.1245
Vellutino F.R., Scanlon D.M., Small S. et al. Response to
intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between reading disable and
non-reading disabled children: Evidence for the role of kindergarten and first
grade intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2006. Vol. 38, no.
6, pp. 157–169.
Villaboros Dintrans P., Bossert T., Sherry J. et al. A
synthesis of implementation science frameworks and application to global health
gaps. Global Health Research and Policy, 2019. Vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 25–36.
Ward-Lonergan J., Duthie J. The state of dyslexia: Recent
legislation and guidelines for serving school-age children and adolescents with
dyslexia. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 2018. Vol.
49, no. 4, pp. 810–816. DOI: 10.1044/2018_LSHSS-DYSLC-18-0002
Youman M., Mather N. Dyslexia laws in the USA: An update.
Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 2015. Vol. 41, no. 4, pp.
Zhang X., Tomblin J.B. The association of intervention
receipt with speech-language profiles and social-demographic variables.
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2000. Vol. 9, no. 4, pp.
345–357. DOI: 10.1044/1058-0360.0904.345