School Well-Being of Elementary School Children: Motivational and Educational Predictors 1249
Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychologiy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
PhD in Psychology, Research Fellow, Department of Research Activities, Shukshin Altai State University for Humanities and Pedagogy, Biysk, Russia
Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
The goals of modern education go beyond mastering cognitive skills, competencies and knowledge. An equally important result of education is the child's school well-being, his/her positive attitude towards school, learning, teachers, and his/her own potential. This study is dedicated to the exploration of internal and external predictors of well-being in Russian elementary schoolchildren (N=1006).It assesses the impact of the learning system (developmental/traditional), satisfaction with relationships with teachers, and intrinsic and extrinsic types of academic motivation on school well-being and academic self-esteem. The results of the study show that the well-being of elementary schoolchildren is based on the positive impact of intrinsic and autonomous motivation and the negative impact of external motivation based on control and demands of teachers and parents. The results also show that the child’s relationship with the teacher and perception of him/her as an interesting person, ready to help and support in the learning process, play an important role in the child’s school well-being and intrinsic motivation. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) confirm that developmental education programs, in comparison with traditional ones, also contribute to school well-being and academic self-esteem of elementary schoolchildren. The practical significance of the study is to take into account the role of both pedagogical (the role of the teacher’s personality and the teaching system) and psychological factors (intrinsic and extrinsic motivation) in maintaining the well-being of elementary schoolchildren.
Keywords: school well-being, academic self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, teaching system, attitude towards teacher, elementary school children
Column: Developmental Psychology
Funding. This research was supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project named “Intrinsic and
extrinsic academic motivation of primary school children taught in different educational systems” (№ 18-013-00386).
Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Osin E.N.Vnutrennyaya i
vneshnyaya uchebnaya motivatsiya studentov: ee istochniki i vliyanie na
psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie [Intrinsic and extrinsic academic motivation in
university students: its sources and impact on psychological
well-being].Voprosy psikhologii [Voprosy psykhologii], 2013,
no.1, pp.35—45.(In Russ., abstr.in Engl.).
Sychev O.A., Gordeeva T.O., Lunkina M.V., Osin E.N.,
Sidneva A.N.Mnogomernaya shkala udovletvorennosti zhizn’yu shkol’nikov
[Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale].Psikhologicheskaya
nauka i obrazovanie [ Psychological Science and Education], 2018,
no.6, pp.5—15.doi: 10.17759/ pse.2018230601.(In Russ., abstr.in Engl.).
Rubinstein S.Ya.Eksperimental’nye metodiki patopsikhologii
i opyt primeneniya ikh v klinike: (Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo) [Experimental
methods of pathopsychology and experience of their application in the clinic
(practical guide)].Moscow: Meditsina, 1970.215 p.
Andrews F.M., Withey S.B.Social indicators of well-being:
Americans’ perceptions of life quality.Social indicators of well-being.New
York: Plenum Press, 1976.455 p.
Bradshaw J., Keung A., Rees G., Goswami H.Children’s
subjective well-being: International comparative perspectives.Children and
Youth Services Review, 2011.Vol.33, no.4, pp.548—556.doi:
Sheldon K.M., Osin E.N., Gordeeva T.O., Suchkov D.D.,
Sychev O.A.Evaluating the Dimensionality of Self-Determination Theory’s
Relative Autonomy Continuum.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
2017.Vol.43, no.9, pp.1215— 1238.doi: 10.1177/0146167217711915
Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Sidneva A.N., Pshenichniuk
D.V.Academic Motivation of Elementary Schoolchildren in Two Educational
Systems: Еffects of Developmental Education.Psychology in Russia: State of
the Art, 2018, no.4, pp.22—39.doi: 10.11621/ pir.2018.0402
Hoge D., Smit E., Hanson S.School Experiences Predicting
Changes in Self-Esteem of Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Students.Journal of
Educational Psychology, 1990.Vol.82, no.1, pp.117—127.
Mikulincer M., Shaver P.Mental representations and
attachment security.In M.Baldwin ed.Interpersonal cognition.NY, London:
Guilford Press, 2005, pp.233— 266.
Opdenakker M.-C., Van Damme J.Effects of schools, teaching
staff and classes on achievement and well-being in secondary education:
Similarities and differences between school outcomes.School effectiveness
and school improvement, 2000.Vol.11, no.2, pp.165—196.
Reddy R., Rhodes J.E., Mulhall P.The influence of teacher
support on student adjustment in the middle school years: a latent growth curve
study.Development and Psychopathology, 2003.Vol.15, no.1, pp.119—
Reynolds C.R., Elliott S.N., Witt J.C.School psychology:
Essentials of theory and practice.New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
Roeser R.W., Eccles J.S., Sameroff A.J.Academic and
emotional functioning in early adolescence: Longitudinal relations, patterns,
and prediction by experience in middle school.Development and
Psychopathology, 1998.Vol.10, no.2, pp.321—352.
Ryan R.M., Connell J.P.Perceived locus of causality and
internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains.Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 1989.Vol.57, no.5, pp.749—761.doi:
Ryan R.M., Deci E.L.Self-determination theory: Basic
psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness.Self-determination
theory.New York: The Guilford Press, 2017.756 p.
Bücker S., Nuraydin S., Simonsmeier B.A., Schneider M.,
Luhmann M.Subjective well-being and academic achievement: A
meta-analysis.Journal of Research in Personality, 2018.Vol.74,