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Научная психология Выготского: непознанная территория 1361
This article presents a brief overview of the developments in Marxist psychology and its achievement over the past first Marx's century (1883—1983) and then preview how Marxist psychology looks like in the second Marx's century (1983—2083). Marxist psychology of the second Marx's century will shape the ontological, epistemological, theoretical, and methodological outlook of psychological studies. Marx research investigations guide the scope of our theoretical and empirical scientific activities and lead to the conclusion that human higher mental functions are rooted in Marx's four levels of the organization of production that regulate and organize all forms of human life including human higher mental functions. Marx's archives possessed a wealth of fragmented psychological ideas and concepts. This article concludes with the idea that, the second century Marx will be more productive and for the first time we are perhaps nearer to a Marxist psychology than ever. This view is essentially possible if it has an important market and an influence in the United States. Here I join Marx's conclusion that the real change for a better world will begin in the United States, this change will shape the world. In the last three decades, Vygotsky was re-discovered and promoted by North American psychologists, and his ideas spread around the world including Russia.
It is from this perspective that Vygotsky, quickly, directed his attention to the concept of social relations of production. For the first time, the question of the psychological unit of analysis is approached scientifically and analytically.Conclusion Vygotsky explicitly sees himself as completing Marx's project in the realm of Psychology, and argued for the primacy of human consciousness as the object of study of a Marxist psychology. Thus, Vygotsky wants to extend a particular view of Marx's psychological ideas, that it «is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness» (Marx, 1978, p. 4). It is not possible to separate human higher mental functions from the concrete life of the thinking person. Our higher mental functions are shaped and carved by our concrete social reality. These higher mental functions and its conceptions in turn affect every aspect of human lives from the way human individuals organize their every day activities, to raising children, to worshiping and laboring. In conclusion, Vygotsky actually rejected the philosophical premise that human individual is selfcreating being arising out of the dialectic between his laboractivity and the natural as well as social world it transforms. Vygotsky turned Marx fragmented psychological ideas into a constructive system, and provides a detailed argument for why it is urgent to develop a scientific psychology, a Marxist psychology.
Thus, we are perhaps nearer to a Marxist psychology than ever.
I conclude this paper with Georges Canguilhem remarks in his
famous article titled «What is psychology?» he said, «It is therefore, with a
degree of vulgarity that philosophy confronts psychology with the crucial
question: tell me what you are up to [tendez] so that l know what you are? But
once in a while, the philosopher must be allowed to approach the psychologist
as a counselor and say: when one leaves Sorbonne University by the exit Rue
SaintJacques, you can either ascend the hill or go downhill: if you go up, you
will get to the Pantheon which is the resting place for several great men, but
if you go downhill then you're surely end up at the Prefecture de Police»
(1958, p. 25).
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