Assertive behavior: advantages and perception



In this information-analytical paper analyzes and summarizes the results of all available international research and assertiveness assertive behavior relating to the identification of their strengths and the perception of these phenomena in society. Are some suggestions for overcoming the problems detected.

General Information

Keywords: assertiveness, assertiveness behavior, benefits, perception, overseas studies

Journal rubric: Social Psychology

Article type: review article

For citation: Sheinov V. Assertive behavior: advantages and perception [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2014. Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 107–120. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Sheinov V.P. Razrabotka testa assertivnosti, udovletvoriaiushchego trebovaniiam nadezhnosti i validnosti [Development of the test of assertiveness, satisfying the requirements of reliability and validity]. Voprosy psikhologii [Questions of psychology], 2014, no. 2, pp. 107–116.
  2. Sheinov V.P. Konflikty v nashei zhizni i ikh razreshenie [Conflicts in our lives and their resolution]. Minsk: Amalfeia, 1996. 280 p.
  3. Sheinov V.P. Upravlenie konfliktami: Teoriia i praktika [Conflict management: theory and practice]. Minsk: Kharvest, 2010. 912 p.
  4. Adjustment problems of Turkish international student studying in the U.S. / Poyrazli S., Arbona C., Bullington R., Pisecco S.J. Coll. Stud., 2001, no. 35, pp. 52–62.
  5. Alberti R.E., Emmons M.L. Your perfect right: a guide to assertive behavior. San Luis Obispo, California: Impact, 1975. 118 p.
  6. An investigation of the personality traits of scientists versus nonscientists and their relationship with career satisfaction / Lounsbury J.W., Foster N., Patel H., Carmody P., Gibson L.W., Stairs D.R. R&D Management, 2012. Vol. 42, Issue 1, January, pp. 47–59.
  7. Austin M.F., Grant T.N. Interview training for college students disadvantaged in the labor market: Comparison of live instructional techniques. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1981. Vol. 28, pp. 72–75.
  8. Bandura A. Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognition Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
  9. Berkowitz L. Words and symbols as stimuli to aggressive responses. Control of Aggression: Implications From Basic Research / J.F. Knutson (ed) Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1973, pp. 113–143.
  10. Biglan A. et al. Impact of distressed and aggressive behavior / Biglan A., Rothlind 1., Hops H., Sherman L. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1989. Vol. 98, pp. 218–228.
  11. Bowen D.D. Toward a viable concept of assertiveness. Experiences in management and organizational behavior / D.T. Hall, D.D. Bowen, R.J. Lewicki, F.S. Hall, (Eds.). 2nd ed. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
  12. Bruch M.A. A task analysis of assertive behavior revisited: Replication and extension. Behavior Therapy, 1981. Vol. 12, pp. 217–230.
  13. Butler P.E. Self-Assertor for Women. Harper and Row, San FaiKisco, 1981.
  14. Cartledge G., Milburn J.F. The case for teaching social skills in the classroom. Review of Educational Research, 1978, no. 1, pp. 133–156.
  15. Chen G.M. Communication Adaptability and Interaction Involvement as Predictors of Cross-cultural Adjustment. Communication Reports, 1992, no. 9, pp. 33–41.
  16. Current Psychology: Developmental 9. Learning Personality/ Piccinin S., McCarrey M., Fairweather D., Vito D., Conrad G. Social Spring, 1998. Vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 75–91.
  17. Flora J., Segrin J. Social skills are associated with satisfaction in close relationships. Psychological Reports, 1999. Vol. 84, pp. 803–804.
  18. Flowers J.V. Goal clarity as a component of assertive behavior and a result of assertion training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1978. Vol. 34, no. 3, July, pp. 744–747.
  19. Gökalan Z.B. İlköğretim okulu öğrencilerinin (12–14 yaş) benlik tasarımı, atılganlık ve kendini açma düzeyleri ile akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişki. Selçuk University, Konya, 2000.
  20. Grossberg J. Successful behavior therapy in a case of speech phobia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1965. Vol. 30, pp. 285–288.
  21. Gupta M., Hooda R.C., Kumar J. Effect of different techniques of assertiveness training on students self-concept. Recent Researches in Education and Psychology, 2002, no. 7, pp. 19–24.
  22. Hartley P. Interpersonal communication. London & New York: Routledge, 1999. 264 p.
  23. Henman L. F2 leadership [Electronic resource]. Retrieved, 2006. Vol. 22, June. Available at: (Accessed: 28.06.2014).
  24. Hersen R., Eisler R.M., Miller P.M. Development of Assertive Responses: Clinical Measurement and Research Considerations. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1973. Vol. 11, pp. 505–521.
  25. Hill E.H. Development of an Assertiveness Training Module for College-Level Instructors, 1977. 38 p.
  26. Hull D.В., Schroeder H.E. Some interpersonal effects of assertion, nonassertion and aggression. Behavior Therapy. 1979. Vol. 10, pp. 20–28.
  27. Ikiz F.E. Self-perceptions about properties affecting assertiveness of trainee counselors. Social behavior and personality, 2011. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 199–206.
  28. Impact of Assertive and Accusatory Communication of Distress and Anger: A Verbal Component Analysis / Kubany E.S., Richard D.C., Bauer G.B., Muraoka M.Y. Aggressive Behavior, 1992. Vol. 18, Issue 5, pp. 337–347.
  29. Jinsi A.J. Self Assertiveness and Emotional Intelligence of Higher Secondary Students. Unpublished M. Ed dissertation, Farook Training College, University of Calicut, 2006.
  30. Kawi J., Xu Y. Facilitators and barriers to adjustment of international nurses: an integrative review. International Nursing Review, 2009. Vol. 56, Issue 2, June, pp. 174–183.
  31. Kraft W.A., Litwin W.J., Barber S.E. Religious orientation and assertiveness: Relationship to death anxiety. The Journal of Social Psychology, 1986, no. 127, pp. 93–95.
  32. Lesure-Lester G.E. Dating competence, social assertion and social anxiety among college students. College Student Journal, 2001. Vol. 35, pp. 317–321.
  33. Lewittes H.J., Bern S.L. Training women to be more assertive in mixed-sex task-oriented discussions. Sex Roles, 1983, no. 9, pp. 581–596.
  34. Lounsbury J.W. Personality Characteristics of Business Majors as Defined by the Big Five and Narrow Personality Traits. N.Y., 2009.
  35. Maddux J.E., Meier L.J. Self-efficacy and Depression. Self-efficacy, adaptation and adjustment: Theory, Research and Application / J.E. Maddux (ed.). N.Y.: Plenum Press, 1995, pp. 143–172.
  36. Magno C. Assessing the Relationship of Scientific Thinking, Self-regulation in Research, and Creativity in a Measurement Model. The International Journal of Research and Review, 2011. Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 17–47.
  37. Martin A. Gray C., Adam A. Nurses Responses to Workplace Verbal Abuse: A Scenario Study of the Impact of Situational and Individual Factor. Research & Practice in Human Resource Management, 2007. Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 41–61.
  38. Mitrofan L., Dumitrache S.D. Interconnections between Assertiveness and Empathy in Couple Relationships. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy, 2012.
  39. Onur B. Ergenlik psikolojisi. Ankara: Hacettepe Taş, 1987. 240 p.
  40. Onur E. P. Çocuklarda özgüven ve koşulları. III. National Psychology Congress, Turkish Psychological Association, 1985.
  41. Predicting Individual Differences in Autonomy – Connectedness: The Role of Body Awareness, Alexithymia, and Assertiveness / Bekker M.H.J., Croon M.A., van Balkom E.G.A., Vermee J.B.G. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 64, Issue 6, pp. 747–765.
  42. Qurotul U. The Assertiveness Training to Increase Resilience of Spouse Abuse. 2005.
  43. Rathus S. A. A 30-item schedule for assessing behavior. Behavior Therapy, 1973. Vol. 4, pp. 298–406.
  44. Richmond V.P., McCroskey J.C. Reliability and separation of factors on the assertiveness-responsiveness measure. Psychological Reports, 1990. Vol. 67, pp. 449–450.
  45. Rotheram M.J., Armstrong M., Booraem C. Assertiveness training in fourth and fifth grade children. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1982. Vol. 10, Issue 5, pp. 567–582.
  46. Ryan E.B., Anas A.P., Mays H. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters. Educational erotology, 2008. Vol. 34, pp. 504, 512–515.
  47. Saigh P.A. Anxiety, depression, and assertion across alternating intervals of stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1988. Vol. 97, Issue 3, pp. 338–341.
  48. Salter A. Conditioned reflex therapy N.Y.: Capricorn, 1949. 245 p.
  49. Scheer J.K., Ansorge C.J., Howard J. Judging bias induced by viewing contrived videotapes: A function of selected psychological variables. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1983. Vol. 5, pp. 427–437.
  50. Staats A.W. Social Behaviorism. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1975. 655 p.
  51. Stringer-Moore D.M. Uses of Assertiveness Training for Women in Midlife Crises, 1981. 10 p.
  52. Sullivan J. J., Albrecht T. L., Taylor S. Process, Organizational, Relational, and Personal Determinants of Managerial Compliance-gaining Communication Strategies. Journal of Business Communication, 1990. Vol. 27, Issue 4, pp. 331–355.
  53. Swimmer G. I., Ramanaiah N. V. Convergent and discriminant validity of selected assertiveness measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985. Vol. 49, pp. 243–249.
  54. Tanck R. H., Robbins P. R. Assertiveness, locus of control and coping behaviors to diminish tension. Educational Gerontology, 2008. Vol. 34, pp. 503–519.
  55. Thompson R.A., Cowan C.L., Rosenhan D.L. Focus of attention mediates the impact of negative affect on altruism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980. Vol. 38, pp. 291–300.
  56. Thurman C.W. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatments in reducing type A behavior among university faculty. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1985. Vol. 32, pp. 74–83.
  57. Weitlauf J.C., Smith R.E., Cervone D. Generalization effects of coping-skills training: Influence of self-defense training on women's efficacy beliefs, assertiveness, and aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2000. Vol 85, Issue 4, Aug, pp. 625–633.
  58. Whitley M.P., Poulsen S.B. Assertiveness and Sexual Satisfaction in Employed Professional Women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 1975. Vol. 37, Issue 3, Aug, pp. 573–581.
  59. Wilson K., Gallois C. Assertion and Its Social Context. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 1993.
  60. Wolpe J. Psychotherapy by Reproach Inhibition Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1958.
  61. Wolpe J., Lazarus A.A. Behavior therapy techniques: A guide to the treatment of neuroses. New York: Pergamon Press, 1966.
  62. Woolfolk R.L., Dever S. Perceptions of assertion, An empirical analysis. Behavioral Therapy, 1979. Vol. 10, pp. 404–411.
  63. Zhangw Z., Wang M., Fleenor J.W. Effects of participative leadership: The moderating role of cultural values. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings,2011, pp. 1–6.

Information About the Authors

Viktor Sheinov, Doctor of Sociology, PhD in Physics and Matematics, Professor, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Pedagogical Skills, Republican Institute of Higher Education, Minsk, Belarus, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 4483
Previous month: 20
Current month: 7


Total: 10317
Previous month: 35
Current month: 4