Intrinsic and Extrinsic Academic Motivation Scale for Schoolchildren



The paper focuses on the development of the questionnaire Scales of Academic Motivation in School-Age Children based on the Academic motivation questionnaire for university students previously developed by T.Gordeeva, O.Sychev and E.Osin.The theoretical foundation of this questionnaire is the self-determination theory and its subtheory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.Confirmatory factor analysis proved the 8-scale structure of the questionnaire defining three closely related types of intrinsic motivation (learning, achievement and self-development motivation), four typical types of extrinsic motivation in learning activity (self-respect motivation, introjected motivation, two types of external motivation), and amotivation.All scales demonstrate acceptable reliability (0,72 < α < 0,90) and expected correlations with indicators of persistence in learning, subjective well-being and academic achievement.Basing on the revealed gender differences in motivation the paper presents normative data both for adolescent girls and boys. This research was carried out with the support of state subsidies allocated to the National Research University Higher School of Economics within the programme of state support of Russia’s leading universities in order to enhance their competitiveness among major global scientific and educational centers.

General Information

Keywords: diagnostics of learning motivation, validity, reliability, internal motivation, external motivation, academic achievements, school-aged children

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology


For citation: Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Gizhitsky V.V., Gavrichenkova T.K. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Academic Motivation Scale for Schoolchildren. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2017. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 65–74. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2017220206. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Gizhitskii V., Gordeeva T., Gavrichenkova T.Razrabotka oprosnika uchebnoi nastoichivosti i postoyanstva uchebnykh interesov [Elaboration of questionnaire of grit and stability of learning interests].Sovremennaya psikhodiagnostika Rossii. Preodolenie krizisa: sbornik materialov III Vserossiiskoi konferentsii po psikhologicheskoi diagnostiki [Proceedings of the Third Conference on Psychological Testing “Modern Psychodiagnostics in Russia: Overcoming the Crisis”].Chelyabinsk: Publ.Izdatel’skii tsentr YuUrGU, 2015.Vol.1, pp.66–74.
  2. Gordeeva T.O.Psikhologiya motivatsii dostizheniya [Psychology of achievement motivation].Moscow: Smysl.2015.336 p.
  3. Gordeeva T.O., Gizhitskii V.V., Sychev O.A., Gavrichenkova T.K.Motivatsiya samouvazheniya i uvazheniya drugimi kak faktory akademicheskikh dostizhenii i nastoichivosti v uchebnoi deyatel’nosti [Motivation of self-respect and respect by others as factors of academic achievements and persistence in educational activity].Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 2016, no.2(37), pp.57–68.
  4. Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Osin E.N.Vnutrennyaya i vneshnyaya uchebnaya motivatsiya studentov: ee istochniki i vliyanie na psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie [Intrinsic and extrinsic academic motivation in university students: its sources and impact on psychological well-being].Voprosy psikhologii [Voprosy psykhologii], 2013, no.1, pp.35–45.
  5. Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Osin E.N.Oprosnik «Shkaly akademicheskoi motivatsii» [The Questionnaire «Academic motivation scales»].Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 2014, no.4(35), pp. 96–107.
  6. Guay F., Morin A.J.S., Litalien D., Valois P., Vallerand R.J.Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale.The Journal of Experimental Education, Vol.83, no.1, pp.51–82.doi: 10.1080/00220973.2013.876231.
  7. Assor A., Vansteenkiste M., Kaplan A.Identified versus introjected approach and introjected avoidance motivations in school and in sports: The limited benefits of self-worth strivings.Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol.101, no.2, pp.482.doi: 10.1037/a0014236.
  8. Ratelle C.F., Guay F., Vallerand R.J., Larose S., Senécal C.Autonomous, controlled, and amotivated types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis.Journal of Educational Psychology, 2007.Vol.99, no.4, pp.734–746.doi: 10.1037/0022- 0663.99.4.734.
  9. Deci E., Ryan R.M.Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination in Human Behavior.New York: Plenum Press, 1985.371 p.
  10. Huebner E.S.Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children.Psychological Assessment. Vol.6, no.2, pp.149–158.doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.149.
  11. Ryan R.M., Connell J.P.Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol.57, pp.749–761.doi: 10.1037/0022- 3514.57.5.749.
  12. Ryan R.M., Deci E.L.Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions.Contemporary Educational Psychology. Vol.25, no.1, pp.54–67.doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020.
  13. Vallerand R.J., Pelletier L.G., Blais M.R., Briere N.M., Senecal C., Vallieres E.F.The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation in education.Educational and Psychological Measurement. Vol.52, pp.1003–1017.doi: 10.1177/0013164492052004025.

Information About the Authors

Tamara O. Gordeeva, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychologiy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leading Research Fellow, International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Oleg A. Sychev, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher , Shukshin Altai State University for Humanities and Pedagogy, Biysk, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Viktor V. Gizhitsky, PhD in Psychology, Assistant Professor, Department of Pedagogics and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Higher Nursing Training, Psychology and Social Work, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

Tamara K. Gavrichenkova, Educational Psychologist, State Comprehensive School №179, Moscow Institute of Open Education, Psychologist, Center for Pedagogical Skills, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:



Total: 6944
Previous month: 125
Current month: 7


Total: 4286
Previous month: 82
Current month: 4