Interaction Between Significant Adult and Toddler in Russia and Vietnam



The article discusses the role of child interaction with a significant adult (parent, kindergarten teacher, caregiver) in child’s neurocognitive development within socio-cultural contexts of Russia and Vietnam.The article presents the results of a pilot study that included focus group interviews with kindergarten specialists from Russia and Vietnam.The pilot study sample consisted of 74 participants (72 women, 2 men), aged 32 to 54 years (M = 43.04; SD = 6.61).Of these, Russian participants (10 cities) — 42 people (40 women and 2 men) aged 32 to 50 (M = 40.19; SD = 6.28) and Vietnamese participants (1 city) — 32 people (32 women) aged 38 to 54 years (M = 46.67; SD = 5.12).The interviews followed the questionnaire developed by the authors.It consisted of 21 open-ended questions grouped in 3 blocks: Block 1.What characteristics and skills should be developed during early childhood? Where and how should these be developed? Block 2.How are children under 3 years of age developed? Block 3.Who is involved in the development of a child under 3 years of age? A comparative analysis of the responses of the Russian and Vietnamese kindergarten specialists revealed no significant differences between the groups, which suggests similarities in educational and developmental strategies of young children in a kindergarten environment.

General Information

Keywords: early childhood, significant adult, adult-child interaction, joint activity

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology


Funding. The reported study was funded by RFBR and VASS, project number 19-513-92001.

For citation: Galasyuk I.N., Shinina T.V., Shvedovskaya A.A., Morozova I.G., Efremova E.V., Nguyen T.H., Nguyen T.L. Interaction Between Significant Adult and Toddler in Russia and Vietnam. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2019. Vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 47–62. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2019240605.


  1. Burmenskaya G.V., Almazova, O.V., Karabanova O.A., Zakharova E.I., Dolgikh A.G., Molchanov S.V., Sadovnikova T.Yu.Girls’ Emotional and Meaningful Attitude to Motherhood.Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [ Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2018.Vol.26, no.4, pp.46—64.doi:10.17759/cpp.2018260404.(In Russ., Engl.).
  2. Galasyuk I.N.Semeinaya psikhologiya: metodika «otsenka detsko-roditel’skogo vzaimodeistviya» (ecpi- 2.0) [Family psychology: Evaluation of child-parent interaction].Galasyuk I.N., Shinina T.V (eds.).Moscow: Publ.Yurait:, 2019.223 p.
  3. Galasyuk I.N.; Shinina T.V.«Otsenka detsko-roditel’skogo vzaimodeistviya» (ECPI) [Evaluation of child-parent interaction (ECPI)].Moscow: ITD Perspektiva, 2017.304 p.
  4. Gippenreiter Yu.B.Povedenie rebenka v rukakh roditelei [behavior of the child in the hands of the parent].Moscow: AST, 2014.124 p.
  5. Dobrynina V.I., Kolodina A.A., Lyakhovets A.S.Detstvo v sovremennoi Rossii: teoreticheskoe osmyslenie povsednevnoi zhizni [Childhood in modern Russia: a theoretical understanding of everyday life].Vestnik MGUKI [Bulletin of Moscow State University of Culture and Arts], 2013, no.1, pp.52—57.
  6. Drobysheva T.V., Romanovskaya M.A.Tipy professional’nogo vzaimodeistviya sovremennykh rossiiskikh nyan’: sotsial’no-psikhologicheskii analiz [Types of Professional Interactions in Modern Russian Nannies: A Social Psychological Analysis].Sotsial’naia psikhologiia i obshchestvo [ Social Psychology and Society], 2015.Vol.6, no.3, pp. 81— 97.doi:10.17759/sps.2015060306.(In Russ., Engl.).
  7. Druzhinin V.N.Psikhologiya sem’i [Family psychology].Ekaterinburg: Delovaya kniga, 2000.199 p.
  8. Zakharova E.I.Negative Attitude towards Motherhood in Modern Women: Settings and Conditions.Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2015.Vol.11, no.1, pp.44—49.doi:10.17759/chp.2015110106.(In Russ., Engl.).
  9. Kalina O.G.Psychological consequences of lack of positive emotional male function representation in a family and educational environment.Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2008.Vol.13, no.4, pp.82—90.(In Russ., Engl.).
  10. Karabanova, O.A.Child-parent relationship and the practice of education in the family: cross-cultural aspect.Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia [ Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology], 2017.Vol.6, no.2, pp. 15—26.doi:10.17759/jmfp.2017060202.(In Russ., Engl.).
  11. Karabanova O.A.Orientiruyushchii obraz v strukture sotsial’noi situatsii razvitiya rebenka: ot L.S.Vygotskogo k P.Ya.Gal’perinu [The orienting image in the social situation of child development: from L.S.Vygotsky to P.Ya.Galperin].Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya 14. Psikhologiya [ Moscow University Bulletin. Series 14. Psychology], 2012, no.4, pp.73—82.
  12. Kon I.S.Mal’chik — otets muzhchiny.Moscow: Vremya, 2009.704 p.
  13. Kon I.S.Menyayushchiesya muzhchiny v izmenyayushchemsya mire [Man in a changing world].Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 2010, no.6, pp. 99—114.
  14. Lavrova M.A., Tokarskaya L.V.Early Parent- Child Interaction Assessment Techniques.Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [ Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2018.Vol.14, no.2, pp.86—92.doi:10.17759/chp.2018140209.(In Russ., Engl.).
  15. Lifintseva A.A., Kholmogorova A.B.Family factors of psychosomatic disorders in children and adolescents. Konsul’tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy], 2015, no. 1, pp.70—83.(In Russ., Engl.).
  16. Maler M.S., Pain F., Bergman A.Psikhologicheskoe rozhdenie chelovecheskogo mladentsa: Simbioz i individuatsiya [The psychological birth of a human child: symbiosis and individuation].Moscow: Kogito-Tsentr, 2014.413 p.
  17. Ovcharova R.V.Roditel’stvo kak psikhologicheskii fenomen [Parenthood as a psychological phenomenon].Moscow: Moscow Psychology-Social Institute, 2006.496 p.
  18. P’yankova L.A., Nikiforov D.V.Gotovnost’ molodezhi k brachno-semeinym otnosheniyam [Youth readiness for marriage and family relationships].Materialy Mezhdunarodnykh nauchno-prakticheskikh meropriyatii Obshchestva Nauki i Tvorchestva “Novaya nauka i formirovanie kul’tury znanii sovremennogo cheloveka” (g.Kazan’, yanvar’, 2018 g.) [Proceedings of International scientific and practical events of the society of science and creativity “new science and the formation of a knowledge culture of modern man”].Moscow, 2018, pp.303—308.
  19. Filippova G.G., Abdullina S.A.Formation of the internal position of parent in ontogenesis.Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2016.Vol.8, no.4, pp.142— 152.doi:10.17759/psyedu.2016080414.(In Russ., Engl.).
  20. Shvedovskaya A.A.; Zagvozdkina T.Yu.The concept “socio-economic status of a family” (SES): A review of international research.Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2013, no.1, pp.65—76.(In Russ., Engl.).
  21. Shvedovskaya A.A.Playing as a diagnostic tool in psychological counseling.Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2003, no.1, pp.23—43.(In Russ., Engl.).
  22. Shvedovskaya A.A.Specificity of a Parent’s Position in Interaction of Different Types with Preschool and Early School Age Children.Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education], 2006, no.1, pp.69—84.(In Russ., Engl.).
  23. Yakupova V.A., Zakharova E.I.Features of Inner Position of Mother in IVF Women.Kul’turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [ Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2016.Vol. 12, no.1, pp.46—55.doi:10.17759/chp.2016120105.(In Russ., Engl.).
  24. Adamson L.B., Bakeman R., Deckner D.F., Nelson P.B.From interactions to conversations: The development of joint engagement during early childhood.Child Development, 2014, no.3, pp.941—955.
  25. Ang R.P., Goh D.H.Authoritarian parenting style in Asian societies: A cluster-analytic investigation.Contemporary Family Therapy, 2006, no.1, pp.131— 153.
  26. Bennetts S.K., Mensah F.K., Green, J., Hackworth N.J., Westrupp E.M.; Reilly S.Mothers’ Experiences of Parent-Reported and Video-Recorded Observational Assessments.Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2017, pp.3312—3326.doi:10.1007/ s10826-017-026-1
  27. Brooks-Gunn J., Han W., Waldfogel J.Maternal employment and child outcomes in the first three years of life: the NICHD study of early child care.Child Development, 2002, no.4, pp.1052—1072.
  28. Callaghan B.L., Tottenham N.The neuro-environmental loop of plasticity: A cross-species analysis of parental effects on emotion circuitry development following typical and adverse caregiving.Neuropsychopharmacology, 2016, no.41 (1), pp.163— 176.
  29. Christakis E.The Dangers of Distracted Parenting [Elektronnyi resurs].The Atlantic, 2018.URL: https:// (accessed on 03.02.2019).
  30. Diamond A.Executive functions.Annual Review of Psychology, 2013.Vol.64, pp.135—168.
  31. Gregg P., Washbrook E., Propper C., Burgess S.The effects of a mother’s return to work decision on child development in the UK.The Economic Journal, 2005.Vol.115, pp.48—80.
  32. Hartz K., Willford A.Child Negative Emotionality and Caregiver Sensitivity Across Context: Links with Children’s Kindergarten Behaviour Problems.Infants and Child Development, 2015.Vol.24, pp.107—129.doi: 10.1002/icd.1887
  33. Helmke A., Hesse H.-G.Kindheit und Jugend in Asien.Handbuch Kindheits- und Jugendforschung, 2010, pp.479—514.
  34. Hunt P.C.An introduction to Vietnamese culture for rehabilitation service providers in the United States.Culture and Disability: Providing Culturally Competent Services, 2005, pp.203—223.
  35. Ispa J.M., Fine M.A., Halgunseth L.C., Harper S., Robinson J., Boyce L., Brady-Smith C.Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: Variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups.Child Development, 2004.Vol.75, no.6, pp.1613—1631.
  36. Jambunathan S., Burts D., Pierce S.Comparisons of parenting attitudes among five ethnic groups in the United States.Journal of comparative family studies, 2000, no.4.pp.395—406.
  37. Lim N.Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West.Integrative Medicine Research, 2016, no.2, pp. 105—109.
  38. Lindquist K.A., Barrett L.F.Emotional complexity.Handbook of emotions, 2008, no.4, pp.513—530.
  39. Locke al.Visiting Marriages and Remote Parenting: Changing Strategies of Rural—Urban Migrants to Hanoi, Vietnam.The Journal of Development Studies, 2012.Vol.48, no.1, pp.10—25.
  40. Mestechkina T.Parenting in Vietnam.Parenting Across Cultures.Helaine Selin (ed.).The Netherlands: Springer Publishers, 2014, pp.47—57.
  41. Mortensen J.A., Barnett M.A.Teacher-Child Interactions in Infant/Toddler Child Care and Socioemotional Development.Early Education and Development, 2015.Vol.26, pp.209—229.
  42. Parson T., Bales R.Family, socialization and interaction process.Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955, 23 p.
  43. Pinquart M., Silbereisen R.K., Körner A.Coping with family demands under difficult economic conditions: Associations with depressive symptoms.Swiss Journal of Psychology, 2010.Vol.69, pp.53— 63.
  44. Pratt M.E.Caregiver Responsiveness During Preschool Supports Cooperation in Kindergarten: Moderation by Children’s Early Compliance.Early Education and Development, 2016.Vol.27, pp.421— 439.doi: 10.1080/10409289.2016.1090767
  45. Rindermann H., Quyen Sen Ngoc Hoang, Baumeister E.E.Cognitive ability, parenting and instruction in Vietnam and Germany.Intelligence, 2013.Vol.41, no.5, pp.366—377.

Information About the Authors

Irina N. Galasyuk, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professior, Department of Neuro and Pathopsychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Tatyana V. Shinina, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Neuro- and Pathopsychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Anna A. Shvedovskaya, PhD in Psychology, Head of Department of Information & Publishing Projects, Associate Professor, Age Psychology Department named after L.F. Obukhova, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Inna G. Morozova, PhD student (Psychology), Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Evgenia V. Efremova, Mind, Brain and Education, Junior Research Associate, Brain and Neurocognitive Development Lab, Ural Federal University after the name of the first President of the Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia, e-mail:

Thi H. Nguyen, Rector, National Pedagogical College of Nha Trang, Nha Trang, Vietnam, e-mail:

Tuyet L. Nguyen, Rector, National Pedagogical College of Nha Trang, Nha Trang, Vietnam, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 1774
Previous month: 19
Current month: 7


Total: 647
Previous month: 5
Current month: 4