Attitude of Schoolchildren Towards Emergency Distance Learning: Relations with Intrinsic Motivation and School Satisfaction
The results of a study of retrospective attitudes towards distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic among secondary school students are presented (N=439, grades 5-8th). Motivational predictors of this relationship were analyzed, explaining the individual differences among schoolchildren in their preference for distance learning. With the help of structural equation modeling, it is shown that a negative attitude towards distance learning that took place in the recent past, compared to traditional learning, is associated with greater satisfaction of their basic needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness with teachers and classmates, and this relationship is mediated by intrinsic learning motivation, which, in turn, predicts attitudes towards forced distance learning, school satisfaction, and academic performance. It is shown that intrinsically motivated schoolchildren who are interested in the educational process, in general, have a negative attitude towards the forced distance learning that took place during COVID-19 pandemic and would not want it to return.
Keywords: forced distance learning, attitude towards distance learning, intrinsic motivation, basic psychological needs, online education, COVID-19, schoolchildren
Journal rubric: Educational Psychology
Article type: scientific article
Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation (RSF), project number 22-28-01337.
For citation: Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Stepanova M.A. Attitude of Schoolchildren Towards Emergency Distance Learning: Relations with Intrinsic Motivation and School Satisfaction. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2022. Vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 46–56. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2022270604. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)
- Andreev A.A. Distantsionnoe obuchenie i distantsionnye obrazovatel'nye tekhnologii [E-Learning and Distance Learning Technologies]. Otkrytoe obrazovanie [Open Education], 2013, no. 5, pp. 40–46. (In Russ.).
- Gordeeva T.O. Psikhologiya motivatsii dostizheniya [Psychology of achievement motivations]. Moscow: Smysl, 2015. 334 p. (In Russ.).
- Gordeeva T.O., Sychev O.A., Gizhitskii V.V., Gavrichenkova T.K. Shkaly vnutrennei i vneshnei akademicheskoi motivatsii shkol'nikov [Intrinsic and Extrinsic Academic Motivation Scale for Schoolchildren]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2017. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 65–74. DOI:10.17759/pse.2017220206 (In Russ.).
- Nevryuev A.N., Sychev O.A., Sarieva I.R. Svyaz' otnosheniya k distantsionnomu obucheniyu studentov s otchuzhdeniem ot ucheby i emotsional'nym vygoraniem [The Relationship between the Students’ Attitude toward Distance Learning, Alienation from Studying and Emotional Burnout]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2022. Vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 136–146. DOI:10.17759/pse.2022270111 (In Russ.).
- Osin E.N. Otchuzhdenie ot ucheby kak prediktor vygoraniya u studentov vuzov: rol' kharakteristik obrazovatel'noi sredy [Alienation from Study as a Predictor of Burnout in University Students: the Role of the Educational Environment Characteristics]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2015. Vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 57–74. DOI:10.17759/pse.2015200406 (In Russ.).
- Radchikova N.P., Odintsova M.A., Sorokova M.G. Predposylki dlya prinyatiya tsifrovoi obrazovatel'noi sredy v novykh kul'turno-istoricheskikh usloviyakh [Prerequisites for Accepting the Digital Educational Environment in New Cultural and Historical Conditions]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2021. Vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 115–124. DOI:10.17759/chp.2021170315 (In Russ.).
- Rasskazova E.I., Soldatova G.U. Psikhologicheskie i pol'zovatel'skie prediktory otnosheniya k uchebe studentov v period distantsionnogo obucheniya v usloviyakh pandemii [Psychological and User Activity Predictors of Attitude toward Learning]. Psikhologiya. Zhurnal Vysshei Shkoly ekonomiki [Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics], 2022. Vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 26–44. DOI:10.17323/1813-8918-2022-1-26-44 (In Russ.).
- Sychev O.A., Gordeeva T.O., Lunkina M.V., Osin E.N., Sidneva A.N. Mnogomernaya shkala udovletvorennosti zhizn'yu shkol'nikov [Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2018, no. 6, pp. 5–15. DOI:10.17759/pse.2018230601 (In Russ.).
- Shalaginova K.S., Dekina E.V. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie aspekty distantsionnogo obrazovaniya v usloviyakh pandemii: po materialam anketirovaniya studentov – budushchikh psikhologov [Psychological and Pedagogical Aspects of Distance Education in a Pandemic: Based on the Materials of a Survey of Students – Future Psychologists]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological-Educational Studies, 2020. Vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 80–94. DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2020120305 (In Russ.).
- Shtykhno D.A., Konstantinova L.V., Gagiev N.N. Perekhod vuzov v distantsionnyi rezhim v period pandemii: problemy i vozmozhnye riski [Transition of Universities to Distance Mode During the Pandemic: Problems and Possible Risks]. Otkrytoe obrazovanie [Open Education], 2020. Vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 72–81. DOI:10.21686/1818-4243-2020-5-72-81 (In Russ.).
- Capon-Sieber V., Köhler C., Alp Christ A., Helbling J., Praetorius A.-K. The role of relatedness in the motivation and vitality of university students in online classes during social distancing. Frontiers in Psychology, 2022. Vol. 12, pp. 1–16. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.702323
- Chiu T.K.F. Applying the self-determination theory (SDT) to explain student engagement in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 2022. Vol. 54, no. sup1, pp. 14–30. DOI:10.1080/15391523.2021.1891998
- Garrote A., Niederbacher E., Hofmann J., Rösti I., Neuenschwander M.P. Teacher Expectations and Parental Stress During Emergency Distance Learning and Their Relationship to Students’ Perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 2021. Vol. 12, pp. 1–11. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.712447
- Holzer J., Lüftenegger M., Korlat S., Pelikan E., Salmela-Aro K., Spiel C., Schober B. Higher Education in Times of COVID-19: University Students’ Basic Need Satisfaction, Self-Regulated Learning, and Well-Being. AERA Open, 2021. Vol. 7, pp. 1–13. DOI:10.1177/23328584211003164
- Holzer J., Lüftenegger M., Käser U., Korlat S., Pelikan E., Schultze-Krumbholz A., Spiel C., Wachs S., Schober B. Students’ basic needs and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: A two-country study of basic psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic learning motivation, positive emotion and the moderating role of self-regulated learning. International Journal of Psychology, 2021. Vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 843–852. DOI:10.1002/ijop.12763
- Howard J.L., Bureau J., Guay F., Chong J.X.Y., Ryan R.M. Student Motivation and Associated Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis From Self-Determination Theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2021. Vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1300–1323. DOI:10.1177/1745691620966789
- Misirli O., Ergulec F. Emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: Parents experiences and perspectives. Education and Information Technologies, 2021. Vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 6699–6718. DOI:10.1007/s10639-021-10520-4
- Preacher K.J., Hayes A.F. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 2008. Vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 879–891. DOI:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879
- Preacher K.J., Kelley K. Effect size measures for mediation models: quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological Methods, 2011. Vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 93–115. DOI:10.1037/a0022658
- Vansteenkiste M., Van den Bergh O., Chauvrier P., Desmet A., Dewaele A., Phalet K., Lowet K., Luminet O., Morbée S., Soenens B., Vermote B., Waterschoot J. Report # 12. The population is no longer motivated. How can we create a motivating climate? Center for Self-Determination Theory. URL: https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/2020_VansteenkisteEtAl_Report12BelgianCovidProject.pdf (Accessed 03.06.2022).
- Wang J., Wang X. Structural equation modeling: Applications using Mplus. 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2019. 536 p. DOI:10.1002/9781119422730