Perceptions of the Present and Future of the Country as a Factor of the Emigration Activity of Student Youth: Cross-Cultural Analysis

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Abstract

Objective. Analysis of the relationship between perceptions of the present and future of the residence country and the emigration activity of students in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.
Background. The study of the perceptions of residence country as predictors of students’ emigration activity can improve the effectiveness of youth policy in preserving valuable human capital at the country level. Research design. Using multiple regression analysis, the results of the January-April 2021 online survey identified the specifics of the relationships between perceptions of the present and future of the residence country and emigration activity of young people in three countries.
Participants. University students are citizens of Belarus (208 people), Kazakhstan (200) and Russia (250) aged 18 to 25 years.
Measurements. Research questionnaire included 6 statements, based on the theory of planned behavior, developed by I. Ajzen, for studying emigration intentions and behavior in their realization, as well as two sets of characteristics from “Scale of temporary attitudes” by J. Nutten for studying the present and future of the country of residence.
Results. Factors of emigration activity of Russian student youth are perceptions of the present of their residence country as not long-lasting, not free, significant, but boring, as well as perceptions of future in Russia as significant, but not eventful and not innovative. Belarusian emigration-oriented youth perceive their country's present as related to the past, not cohesive, but their own, and the country's future as not cohesive and related to Belarus' present. Kazakhstani emigration-oriented students perceive the present of their country as beautiful, active, but not close, not chaotic and not bright, and the future as not their own and not related to the present of Kazakhstan.
Conclusions. There are differences in the relationships between perceptions of the present and future of the residence country and emigration activity of young people in Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. The effective implementation of youth policy to preserve valuable human capital at the country level requires considering the social and cultural context in which these relationships are formed.

General Information

Keywords: emigration activity, emigration intention, emigration behavior, factors of emigration activity, representations about the country’s present, representations about the country’s future, student youth, cross-cultural analysis

Journal rubric: Empirical Research

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/sps.2023140107

Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), project number 20-013-00156.

Received: 01.08.2022

Accepted:

For citation: Efremenkova M.N., Murashcenkova N.V., Gritsenko V.V., Stelmakh S.A., Burdina E.I. Perceptions of the Present and Future of the Country as a Factor of the Emigration Activity of Student Youth: Cross-Cultural Analysis. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo = Social Psychology and Society, 2023. Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 111–131. DOI: 10.17759/sps.2023140107. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

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Information About the Authors

Maria N. Efremenkova, Postgraduate Student of the Department of Cross-cultural Psychology and Multicultural Education, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0201-5340, e-mail: mnemema@yandex.ru

Nadezhda V. Murashcenkova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology, HSE University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0793-3490, e-mail: ncel@yandex.ru

Valentina V. Gritsenko, Doctor of Psychology, Proffesor of the Department of Cross-cultural Psychology and Multicultural Education, Faculty of Social Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7543-5709, e-mail: gritsenko2006@yandex.ru

Svetlana A. Stelmakh, PhD in Psychology, Professor of the Department of Psychology and Correctional Pedagogy, Sarsen Amanzholov East Kazakhstan University, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3383-4189, e-mail: stelmah_svetlana@mail.ru

Elena I. Burdina, Doctor of Education, Professor of the Department of Personal Development and Education, Toraigyrov University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7757-7612, e-mail: e.i.burdina@mail.ru

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