Emotional Intelligence and Tolerance for Uncertainty as Result Predictors of Military Leaders Professional Activity



In this article emotional intelligence and tolerance to uncertainty are considered as predictors of effectivenessof military leaders. We compare civilians (N=60) and two groups of mid-level militaryleaders (N = 62) classifi ed by experts as those that do not fully cope with a task and the those that copewith the task competently (evaluation is based on 1 year practice). It is determined that tolerance ofuncertainty contributes to the eff ectiveness of military leaders through its infl uence on the variable ofemotional intelligence (the predictor is internal emotional intelligence). In this way it is shown thatthe necessity of analysis of the psychological background in predicting the eff ectiveness of militaryleaders.

General Information

Keywords: emotional intelligence, tolerance for uncertainty, result, professional activity, military instructors

Journal rubric: General Psychology, Personality Psychology, History of Psychology

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Krasnov E.V., Kornilova T.V. Emotional Intelligence and Tolerance for Uncertainty as Result Predictors of Military Leaders Professional Activity. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Psychology, 2016. no. 3, pp. 28–43. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


Goulman D., Boiatsis R., Makki E. Emotsional’noe liderstvo: Iskusstvo upravleniia liud’mi na osnoveemotsional’nogo intellekta [Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead with Emotional Intelligence]. Moscow, AlpinaPublisher, 2012. 301 p. (In Russian)

Bok L. Rabota rulit! Pochemu bol’shinstvo liudei v mire khotiat rabotat’ imenno v Google [Work Rules! Insights from Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead]. Moscow, Mann, Ivanov i Ferber Publ., 2015. 384 p. (In Russian)

Reshetnikov M. M. Psikhologiia voiny: ot lokal’noi do iadernoi. Prognozirovanie sostoianiia, povedeniiai deiatel’nosti liudei [Psychology of war: from local to nuclear. Forecasting of people condition, behaviorand activity]. St. Petersburg, Vostochno-Evropeiskii Institut Psikhoanaliza Publ., 2011. 496 p.(In Russian)

Sternberg R. Dzh., Forsait Dzh. B., Khedland Dzh., Grigorenko E. L. Prakticheskii intellect [Practical intelligence in everyday life]. St. Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2002. 272 p. (In Russian)

Kingsley G., Reed P. Decision Process Models and Organizational Context: Level and Sector Makea Difference. Public Productivity & Management Review, 1991, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 397–413.

Moon M. Organizational Commitment Revised in New Public Management. Motivation, OrganizationalCulture, Sector and Managerial Level. Public Productivity & Management Review, 2000, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 177–194.

Bozh’ia-Volia A. A. Otsenka rezul’tativnosti gosudarstvennykh sluzhashchikh rukovodiashchegosostava: mezhdunarodnyi opyt i rossiiskie perspektivy [Performance assessment of senior civil servants:international practice and Russian Perspectives]. Voprosy gosudarstvennogo i munitsipal’nogo upravleniia [Questions state and municipal management], 2009, no. 2, pp. 81–103. (In Russian)

Federal’nyi zakon ot 28.03.1998 № 53-FZ (red. ot 15.02.2016) «O voinskoi obiazannosti i voennoisluzhbe» [Federal law from 28.03.1998 № 53-FZ (edited 15.02.2016) “About military duty and militaryservice” ]. SPS Konsul’tant Plius: Zakonodatel’stvo: Versiia Prof. [SPS ConsultantPlus: Legislation: VersionProf.]. Available at: https://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_18260 (accessed 10.04.2016). (In Russian)

Livingstone H., Nadjiwon-Foster M., Smithers S. Emotional Intelligence and Military Leadership. Report Prepared for the Canadian Forces Leadership Institute. Ottawa, DND, 2002. 54 p.

Fuller J. B., Patterson C. E., Hester K., Stringer D. Y. A quantitative review of research on charismaticleadership. Psychological Reports, 1996, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 271–287.

Lowe K. B., Kroeck K. G., Sivasubramaniam N. Eff ectiveness correlates of transformational andtransactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 1996, vol. 7,no. 3, pp. 385–425.

Druker P. F. Effektivnyi rukovoditel’ [Th e Effective Executive]. Moscow, Mann, Ivanov and Ferber, 2012.481 p. (In Russian)

Polianova L. M. Vliianie urovnia emotsional’nogo intellekta rukovoditelia na eff ektivnost’ upravlencheskoideiatel’nosti. Authoref. diss. kand. sots. nauk [The level of leader’s Emotional Intelligence infl uenceon eff ectiveness of management activity: abstract of a thesis, candidate of social science. Thesis of PhD]. Moscow, 2015. 25 p. (In Russian)

Joseph D. L., Newman D. A. Emotional Intelligence: An Integrative Meta-Analysis and CascadingModel. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2010, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 54–78.

McClelland D. Identifying Competencies with Behavioral-Event Interviews. Psychological Science, 1998, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 331–339.

Barling J., Slater F., Kelloway E. K. Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratorystudy. The Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 2000, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 157–161.

Egorov I. A. Vliianie urovnia emotsional’nogo intellekta rukovoditelei organizatsii na vypolnenie upravlencheskikhfunktsii. Authoref. diss. kand. psikhol. nauk [The level of leader’s Emotional Intelligence infl uenceon management functions performance. Th esis of PhD]. Moscow, 2006. 24 p. (In Russian)

Kets de Vris M. Mistika liderstva. Razvitie emotsional’nogo intellekta [The Leadership Mystique: a user’s manual for the human enterprise]. Transl. from Engl. Moscow, Alpina Publisher, 2013. 277 p. (In Russian)

Khlevnaia E. A. Rol’ emotsional’nogo intellekta v eff ektivnosti deiatel’nosti (na primere rukovoditelei). Authoref. diss. kand. psikhol. nauk [The role of emotional intelligence in performance eff ectiveness (evidencefrom leaders). Thesis of PhD]. Moscow, 2012. 28 p. (In Russian)

Adizes I. K. Ideal’nyi rukovoditel’: pochemu im nel’zia stat’ i chto iz etogo sleduet [The Ideal Executive: Why You Cannot Be One and What to Do About It]. Moscow, Alpina Publisher, 2007. 264 p. (In Russian)

Lane M. S., Klenke K. The Ambiguity Tolerance Interface: A Modified Social Cognitive Model forLeading under Uncertainty. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 2004, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 69–81.

Pankova T. A. Rol’ emotsional’nogo intellekta v effektivnosti deiatel’nosti rukovoditelia [Th e role of of emotional intelligence in leadership eff ectiveness]. Psikhologicheskie issledovaniia: elektron. nauch. zhurn. [ Psychological research], 2010, no. 2 (10). Available at: http://psystudy.ru (accessed 18.08.2015). (In Russian)

Karpov A. V. Vliianie emotsional’nogo intellekta na effektivnost’ upravlencheskoi deiatel’nosti [Emotionalintelligence infl uence on management eff ectiveness]. Psikhologiia XXI veka. T. 1 [Psychology of ХХIcentury. Vol. 1]. Yaroslavl, YarGU Publ., 2008, pp. 287–290. (In Russian)

Kornilova T. V. Printsip neopredelennosti v psikhologii vybora i riska [Th e principle of uncertaintyin psychology of choice and risk]. Psikhologicheskie issledovaniia [Psychological research], 2015, vol. 8, no. 40, pp. 3. Available at: http://psystudy.ru (accessed 10.09.2015). (In Russian)

Zotova E. Iu. Sovremennye issledovaniia tolerantnosti k neopredelennosti v zarubezhnoi psikhologii [Modern researches of tolerance to uncertainty in foreign psychology]. Vestnik NGU. Series: Psychology, 2009, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 147–155. (In Russian)

Zenasni F., Besancon M., Lubart T. I. Creativity and Tolerance of Ambiguity: An Empirical Study. Journal of Creative Behavior, 2008, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 61–73.

Kornilova T. V. Tolerantnost’ k neopredelennosti i emotsional’nyi intellekt pri priniatii reshenii vusloviiakh podskazki [Tolerance for Uncertainty and Emotional Intelligence and the Use of Hints in Decision-Making]. Psikhologiia. Zhurnal vysshei shkoly ekonomiki [Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics], 2014, no. 4, pp. 19–36. (In Russian)

Liusin D. V. Novaia metodika dlia izmereniia emotsional’nogo intellekta: oprosnik EmIn [Newmethod of emotional intelligence measurement: EmIn questionary]. Psikhologicheskaia diagnostika [Psychological diagnosis], 2006, no. 4, pp. 3–22. (In Russian)

Liusin D. V. Oprosnik na emotsional’nyi intellekt EmIn: novye psikhometricheskie dannye [Emotional intelligence questionary EmIn: new psychometrical data]. Sotsial’nyi i emotsional’nyi intellekt: Ot protsessov k izmereniiam [Social and emotional intelligence: from processes to measurement]. Eds D. V. Lyusin, D. V. Ushakov. Moscow, Publishing house “Psychology Institute RAN”, 2009, pp. 264–278. (In Russian)

Kornilova T. V. Novyi oprosnik tolerantnosti–intolerantnostik neopredelennosti [New questionaryof tolerance-intolerance to uncertainty]. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal [Psychological journal], 2010, vol. 31,no. 1, pp. 74–86. (In Russian)

Lukovitskaia E. G. Sotsial’no-psikhologicheskoe znachenie tolerantnosti k neopredelennosti. Authoref.diss. kand. psikhol. nauk [ Socio-psychological signifi cance of tolerance to uncertainty. Thesis of PhD].St. Petersburg, 1998. 27 p. (In Russian)

Kornilova T. V., Chumakova M. A. Shkaly Tolerantnosti i Intolerantnosti k neopredelennosti vmodifi katsii oprosnika S. Badnera [Scales of tolerance-intolerance to uncertainty in S. Badner questionarymodifi cation]. Eksperimental’naia psikhologiia [Experimental psychology], 2014, no 1, pp. 46–54. (In Russian)

Information About the Authors

Evgeny V. Krasnov, applicant of the Department of General psychology of psychology faculty, Moscow state University. M. V. Lomonosova, Khimki, Russia, e-mail: evkrasnov@gmail.com

Tatyana V. Kornilova, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Department of General Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5065-3793, e-mail: tvkornilova@mail.ru