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Previous issue (2021. Vol. 11, no. 4)

Modelling and Data Analysis

Publisher: Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

ISSN (printed version): 2219-3758

ISSN (online): 2311-9454

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/mda

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published since 2011

Published 4 times a year

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Open Access Journal

 

How Do Toddlers Experience Digital Media? A Case Study of a 28-Month Old Child Learning to Use iPad 200

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Zhukova M.A.
PhD in Psychology, Associate Research Scientist, Laboratory of Translational Sciences of Human Development, Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3069-570X
e-mail: marina.zhukova@times.uh.edu

Kilani H.
Graduate Research Assistant, Genetic and Neurobehavioral Systems:Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Houston, Houston, USA
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2424-2165
e-mail: hechmi.kilani@times.uh.edu

Garcia J.L.
Graduate Research Assistant, Genetic and Neurobehavioral Systems: Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Houston, Houston, USA
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1905-3658
e-mail: jessica.garcia@times.uh.edu

Tan M.
Graduate Research Assistant, Texas Institute of Measurement, Evaluation and Statistics, University of Houston, Houston, USA
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6408-6091
e-mail: Mei.tan@times.uh.edu

Parell P.D.
Graduate, Yale University, Connecticut, USA
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6169-5403
e-mail: pdparell@gmail.com

Hein S.
PhD, Professor, Department of Education and Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5358-704X
e-mail: Sascha.Hein@fu-berlin.de

Grigorenko E.L.
Doctor of Psychology, Leading Scientist, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9646-4181
e-mail: elena.grigorenko@times.uh.edu

Abstract
Digital media is becoming increasingly prevalent in households and classroom settings lowering the age of fi rst exposure to technology; however, little is known about how children experience digital media and how their experiences relate to learning and social engagement. In this case study, we followed a 28-month-old boy in a naturalistic setting for 5 weeks, videotaping the process of his interactions with the iPad. Using a combination of video coding, screen recordings, and a formal academic assessment we evaluated the effects of digital media on specifi c learning outcomes, child affective states associated with gains in digital literacy, and the role of social interaction in the process of digital media exposure. We found that the number of errors predicted a signifi cant amount of the variance in the child’s levels of frustration, attentiveness, help-seeking behaviors, and persistence. Two main types of affect, confusion and attentiveness, predicted gains in his iPad profi ciency, providing important insights into the role of emotions in digital learning. With increased levels of iPad profi ciency, we observed an inconsistent pattern of child social engagement. This study is the fi rst, to our knowledge, to use a combination of qualitative observation data, standardized assessment, and quantitative analysis of a child’s behavior in the process of digital literacy learning.

Keywords: toddler, technology, digital literacy, iPad

Column: Data Analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/mda.2020100301

Funding. This project was funded by the US Department of Education under authority of the SCIENCE REFORM ACT OF 2002, Program Title Education Research, DFDA/Subprogram No: 84.305A PR/AWARD NUMBER 5A160402. Grantees undertaking such projects are encouraged to freely express their professional judgement. Therefore, this article does not necessarily refl ect the position or policies of the abovementioned agency, and no offi cial endorsement should be inferred.

Acknowledgements. The preparation of this manuscript was supported by funding from the Institutes of Education Sciences, through award R305A160402 (PI: Elena L. Grigorenko). Grantees undertaking such projects are encouraged to express freely their professional judgment. This article, therefore, does not necessarily represent the position or policies of the IES and no offi cial endorsement should be inferred.

For Reference

A Part of Article

Tablet technologies are the most novel addition of digital media to children’s environments, as they can be used both as an active and passive technology and require fi ne motor skills to allow for navigation. The impact of these features on the development of young children currently remains understudied.

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