Cognitive Development and Adaptive Skills of Children in Institutions of Russian Federation 704
Engineer-Researcher, Laboratory of Translational Sciences of Human Development, Saint-Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia
PhD, Associate research scientist, Laboratory of Translational Developmental Sciences, Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg, Russia
Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Translational Sciences of Human Development, Saint-Petersburg State University, Moscow, Russia
In present study we examine cognitive development and adaptive skills of children raised in institutions (called Baby Homes) in Russian Federation. Previously it was shown that children in institutions leg behind their age peers in physical and motor development, show deficits in cognitive and language development. However, during the last few years important changes have been introduced in the institutional care system in Russian Federation and there is a dearth of research on cognitive development of children in Baby Homes after the changes have been implemented. The purpose of the current study was to examine cognitive development and adaptive skills of children residing in modern baby homes. We examined 59 children in the age range from 35 to 59 months: 38 children living in baby homes (M = 45,42, SD = 7.04; 17 girls, 21 boys) and 21 children living in biological families (M = 44,90, SD = 7,76; 13 girls, 8 boys). To evaluate cognitive development of children we used three non-verbal scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Behavior Adaptive Scales to obtain information about children’s adaptive skills. Results show that children in baby homes show significantly lower scores on all the scales of cognitive development and adaptive skills in comparison with children in biological families. These results demonstrate the necessity of future changes in the institutional care system in order to improve the environment for children in institutions, nurturing their development.
The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №16-36-01103) and the Government of Russian Federation (project №14.Z50.31.0027)
Kolesnikova M., Solodunova M., Zhukova M., et al.
Osobennosti kognitivnogo razvitiia detei v domah rebenka s razlichnim
social’nim okruzheniem [Cognitive development of young children in institutions
with different social environment]. Vestnik SPbGU. Psikhologiya i pedagogika
[Vestnik SPbSU. Psychology and Education], 2017, vol. 7, no. 4,
pp. 364–380 (in Russian).
Prikhozhan A.M., Tolstykh N.N. Psikhologiia sirotstva [The
psychology of orphanhood]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter, 2005. 400 p. (In
Bakermans-Kranenburg M.J., van Jzendoorn M.H., Juffer F.
Earlier is better: A meta-analysis of 70 years of intervention improving
cognitive development in institutionalized children. Monographs of the
Society for Research of Child Development, 2008, vol. 73, pp.
Berument S.K., Sonmez D., Eyupoglu H. Supporting language
and cognitive development of infants and young children living in children's
homes in Turkey. Child, 2012, no. 38, pp. 743–752.
Bornstein M.H, Hahn C.S., Bell C., et al. Stability in
cognition across early childhood: A developmental cascade. Psychological
Science, 2006, no. 17, pp. 151–158.
Bornstein M.H., Hahn C.S., Wolke D. Systems and cascades
in cognitive development and academic achievement. Child Development,
2013, vol. 84, pp. 154–162.
Fox N.A., Almas A.N., Degnan K.A., et al. The effects of
severe psychosocial deprivation and foster care intervention on cognitive
development at 8 years of age: findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention
Project. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2011, vol. 52, pp.
Johnson D.E., Guthrie D., Smyke A.T., et al. Growth and
associations between auxology, caregiving environment, and cognition in
socially deprived romanian children randomized to foster vs ongoing
institutional care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine,
2010, no. 164, pp. 507–516.
Lloyd E., Barth R.P. Developmental outcomes after five
years for foster children returned home, remaining in care, or adopted.
Children and Youth Services Review, 2011, vol. 33, no. 8, pp.
McCall R., Groak C., Fish L., et al. A
socioemotional intervention in a Latin American orphanage. Infant Mental
Health Journal, 2010, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 521–542.
McCall R. The development and care of
institutionally-reared children. Child Development Perspectives, 2012,
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 174–180.
Muhamedrahimov R.J., Grigorenko E.L. Seeing the
trees within the forest: Addressing the needs of children without parental care
in the Russian Federation. In
E.L. Grigorenko (Ed.) The global context for new directions for child and
adolescent development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent
Development, 2015, vol. 147,
Muhamedrahimov R.J., Nikiforova N.V., Palmov O.I.,
et al. Characteristics of children, caregivers, and orphanages for young
children in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. Journal of Applied
Developmental Psychology, 2005, no. 5, pp. 477–506.
Muhamedrahimov R.J., Palmov O.I., Nikiforova N.V.,
et al. Institution based early intervention program. Infant Mental Health
Journal, 2004, no. 25, pp. 488–501.
Mullen E.M. Mullen scales of early learning. San
Antonio, TX: Pearson, 1995. 85 p.
Nelson C.A., Zeanah C.H., Fox N.A., et al. Cognitive
recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention
Project. Science, 2007, no. 318,
Pears K., Fisher P.A. Developmental, cognitive, and
neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: associations
with prior maltreatment and placement history. Journal of Developmental and
Behavioral Pediatrics, 2005, vol. 26, no. 2,
Pears K.C., Heywood C.V., Kim H.K., et al.
Prereading deficits in children in foster care. School Psychology
Review, 2011, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 140–148.
Pomerleau A., Malcuit G., Chicoine J., et al. Health
status, cognitive and motor development of young children adopted from China,
East Asia, and Russia across the first 6 months after adoption.
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2005, no. 29,
Rakhlin N., Hein S., Doyle N., et al.
Sources of Heterogeneity in Developmental Outcomes of Children with Past and
Current Experiences of Institutionalization in Russia: A Four-Group Comparison.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2017, vol. 87, no. 3,
Rakhlin, N., Kornilov, S.A., Palejev, D., et al. The
language phenotype of a small geographically isolated Russian-speaking
population: Implications for genetic and clinical studies of developmental
language disorder. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2013, vol. 34, no. 5, pp.
Rutter M. Children in substitute care: some
conceptual considerations and research implications. Children and Youth
Services Review, 2000, no. 22, pp. 685–703.
Sparrow S.S., Cicchetti D.V., Balla D.A. Vineland-II
Adaptive behavior scales: Survey Forms Manual. Circle Pines, MN: AGS
Publishing, 2005. 330 p.
St. Petersburg – USA Orphanage Research Team. The
Effects of Early Social-Emotional and Relationship Experience on the
development of Young Orphanage Children // Monographs of the Society for
Research in Child Development. USA, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, 297
UNICEF/CEECIS. Regional analysis report. Regional
office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CEE/CIS), 2013. P. 1–36 URL:
Van Ijzendoorn M.H., Juffer F., Poelhuis C.W.
Adoption and cognitive development: a meta-analytic comparison of adopted and
nonadopted children's IQ and school performance. Psychological Bulletin,
2005, no. 131, pp. 301–316.
Van Ijzendoorn M.H., Luijk M.P., Juffer F. IQ of
children growing up in children's homes: A meta-analysis on IQ delays in
orphanage. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2008, no. 54, pp. 341–366.