Zones of development, zones of counteraction, and the area of responsibility

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Abstract

Development of civilization, of different societies, social groups and individuals is influenced by two contradictory and interrelated tendencies of social impacts: a) assistance and b) counteraction in gaining experience, in learning and developing. From this point of view the author reviews different notions that emerged from L.S. Vygotsky's notion of "zone of proximal development", and that reflect the diversity of zones of development and developmental outcomes under the different types of social interactions. The author discusses the moral (purposeful) and cognitive (operational and technical) aspects of learners' orientation and intentional disorientation within the conflict of goals and moral attitudes of members of social interactions, as well as the problem of responsibility for development, and the possibility of resistance against negative impacts (orientation despite disorientation).

General Information

Keywords: learning, upbringing, development, zone of proximal development, support, counteraction, conflict, personality, morality, responsibility

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Poddyakov A.N. Zones of development, zones of counteraction, and the area of responsibility. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2006. Vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 68–81. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

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Information About the Authors

Aleksander N. Poddyakov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Faculty of Psychology, Department of General and Experimental Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Member of the International Society for Studies of Behaviour Development (ISSBD), Member of the editorial boards of the journals: “Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics", "Researcher/Researcher", "Culture and Psychology", "Mathematical Thinking and Learning", "International Journal of Idiographic Science", Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6793-9985, e-mail: alpod@gol.ru

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