School of D.B. Elkonin - V.V. Davydov: from Research History to Research Perspectives

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Abstract

The article is an introdution to the project “A Model of a Modern School Based on the System of Developmental Education of D.B.Elkonin - V.V.Davydov”. It was presented to the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Education in 2013. Based on more than half a century experience in the development and implementation of a developmental learning system in the practice of experimental Moscow school 91, the authors prove the relevance of the project in solving the basic problems of modern education. The orientation of the developmental learning system on the principles of activity theory provides an opportunity to achieve high meta-subject results. A retrospective analysis of the stages of the formation of the developmental learning system allows not only to confirm the importance of its fundamental theoretical provisions, but also to identify points of growth,to determine the prospects for further development. The article presents a list of problems, which must be solved in order to achieve an effective implementation of developmental learning in modern educational practice. There is a detailed list of practical content (textbooks, manuals, methodological recommendations, workbooks) created by the authors of educational programs for students of different ages and for teachers.

General Information

Keywords: scientific school of D.B. Elkonin - V.V. Davydov, learning activity, learning content, learning cooperation, educational standards, 91 school, project

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/chp.2024200104

Received: 04.03.2024

Accepted:

For citation: Rubtsov V.V., Elkonin B.D., Zuckerman G.A., Ulanovskaya I.M. School of D.B. Elkonin - V.V. Davydov: from Research History to Research Perspectives. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2024. Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 16–26. DOI: 10.17759/chp.2024200104.

Full text

Introduction

Modern pedagogical science, obviously, does not keep up with the ever-increasing and increasingly diverse and contradictory demands of the school life practice in modern Russia. Thus, the most difficult challenges of the last decade have been the introduction of new (second-generation) educational standards and the transition to distance learning in connection with the pandemic. These events (as well as many more specific problems that arise hourly in the educational process) force us to re-evaluate the importance, experience and prospects of the theory and practice of learning activity.

The role of the new Primary Education Standard (accepted in 2011) cannot be overestimated. Its introduction, in fact, consolidated the priority of the value of development over the assimilation of specific knowledge and skills in primary school age and, following the fundamental provisions of L.S. Vygotsky's cultural and historical theory, placed the responsibility for achieving a developmental effect on the content of education and on the forms and methods of organizing the educational environment of the school. It means that it proclaimed "... recognition of the decisive role of the content of education, ways of organizing learning activity and interaction of participants in the learning process in achieving the goals of personal, social and cognitive development of students" [2].

In general, analyzing the fundamental provisions of the 2011 Standard, it should be noted that it contains new value orientations of modern education.

  • Firstly,  the target priorities of education have been for the first time shifted from the sum of knowledge, skills and abilities that students accumulate during their studies to the developmental effects of education (first of all, to meta-subject results, which can only be based on the scientific content of a school subject, but are not reduced to it).
  • Secondly, independence, initiative and responsibility in thinking and acting are understood as the central developmental effects of education, which are necessary for a generation capable of meeting the challenges of the modern world and creating a decent future for themselves and society.
  • Thirdly, the ability and propensity for constant self-education (the ability and desire to learn) is understood as a basic value. Its appropriation is the most important means that makes a person successful and productive in the modern labor market. "The formation of a stable system of learning, cognitive and social motives and the personal meaning of learning is the basis for the development of a pupil as a subject of learning activity. In primary school, the foundations of the ability to learn and the ability to organize their activities are formed ― the ability to accept, maintain goals and follow them in learning activity, plan their activities, monitor and evaluate them" [2].

It is obvious that the provisions of this Standard can only be provided if the educational practice is based on the fundamental principles of psychological science and offers students special scientific content for mastering, encouraging children to search, research, experiment, as well as discussion and interaction. This practice is offered in the most elaborated form by the educational system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V.Davidov.

On the history of the development of the theory of educational activity

The Laboratory of Psychology of Primary school children under the leadership of D.B. Elkonin has existed at the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the RSFSR since 1953. And in 1959, it "... switched to a new form of research – the organization of experimental classes and the active formation of learning activity of schoolchildren" [1, p. 3] at school No. 91 in Moscow. From the very beginning of the research in the laboratory "the main task...  was a study of the process of formation of learning activity as a leading activity in primary school age" [ibid., p. 4]. In 1960, the first article by D.B. Elkonin was published in the journal "Problems of Psychology". According to the results of experimental training at school No. 91,  in 1962 the book "Problems of psychology of learning activity of younger schoolchildren" was published (edited by D.B. Elkonin and V.V. Davydov). And already in the first decade of the joint work of the school and the laboratory, the most important provisions of the future theory of learning activity were formulated.

So, it was proved that:

  • The age possibilities of younger schoolchildren significantly depend on the education system, which, while maintaining and strengthening some age potencies, hinders the development of others. Younger students can show independence, criticality and initiative in thinking and acting, but only under certain learning conditions. These conditions are extremely rare in school, therefore, the named qualities of a child's mind and ability to act are observed only in the form of exceptions (mainly in gifted children).
  • The content of education is the main condition for learning, which develops children's independence,  criticality and initiative in thinking and acting. By changing the conceptual content of a school subject, it is possible to create conditions for development of the children abilities to independently search and discover new ways to solve problems. Thus, D.B. Elkonin and V.V. Davydov wrote that "... the revision of the traditional programs of school subjects  went in two directions: firstly, the maximum approximation of the programs to the current state of the relevant field of scientific knowledge (mathematics, linguistics); secondly, the saturation of programs with content that stimulates the mental development of the child" [ibid., p. 5].
  • The formation of children's potential abilities by means of learning organized as joint activity, rather than measuring the developmental effects of traditional learning, is the main method of studying the laws of development in learning. In order to conduct formative experiments, it is necessary to create a new  psycho-didactics based on activity theory and appropriate methods to support  teaching and learning processes.
  • In the seventies, the first versions of curricula and teaching materials for mathematics, Russian language, art and literature courses in elementary schools were created. And the repeated testing and processing of these courses in the teaching – learning process in school No. 91 helped psychologists to formulate the basic concepts of learning activity.
  • learning activity is aimed at finding and mastering new ways of action (as opposed to teaching aimed at reproducing ready-made patterns of action). Learning activity reproduces research activity: students, under the guidance of a teacher, independently discover new ways of acting for themselves. In culture these ways of acting are formalized in the form of concepts.
  • The learning problem is a situation that encourages a student to search for general principles and generalized ways to solve a wide class of problems (as opposed to specific practical tasks that focus on the result rather than the method of solution).
  • Learning actions include the transformation of task conditions to highlight the most significant relationship of the studied object, modeling of an essential relationship discovered during the transformation, its concretization, control and evaluation of one's own actions – this is the composition of a jointly distributed learning activity. Participation in jointly distributed learning activity helps a younger student to think and act proactively, critically and intelligently.
  • Learning cooperation is a special form of interaction between a younger student with peers and a teacher, in which a children's initiative is born and supported, aimed at finding new ways to solve learning problems.

It is not difficult to see how closely the organization of learning activity based on this system of concepts meets the modern requirements of new educational standards developed on the basis of the activity approach.

In 1975-1980, the laboratory of V.V. Davydov, together with the teachers of primary school No. 91, fulfilled the plan-order of the Russian Ministry of Education. As a result of this work, by the end of the 70s, a new primary education system was actually created: the theory of learning activity by D.B. Elkonin-V.V. Davydov and the activity practice itself, provided with methodological materials for lessons for all primary school courses.

However, since 1982, experimental research at School No. 91 has been suspended for various reasons. But the teachers of the school continued to use  experimental materials in practice of teaching. Having gained a unique experience of working "in a new way", in constant dialogue and interaction with students, they could not return to traditional teaching methods. Psychologists from the former laboratory of V.V. Davydov, unable to conduct formative experiments in classrooms, continued to study learning activity, focusing on the academic aspects of this scientific school. During these years, the approaches outlined in the laboratory to the diagnosis of the quality of school knowledge (objectivity, consistency and generalization of concepts) and the developmental effects of learning (reflection, analysis, planning) were systematized. Samples of new diagnostic methods and techniques were created. On the base of the results of the diagnostic data, effectiveness of learning in the form of learning activity  in comparison with traditional learning became evident.

Daniil B. Elkonin died in 1984. His students and followers united under the leadership of V.V. Davydov in order to continue research and development within the framework of the scientific school. The theory of development by means of education, combined with the theory of periodization of child mental development, began to acquire more and more specific and modern outlines.

In the nineties the restructuring of the whole country and its educational system made the theory of learning activity in great demand: the shortage of initiative, independent-minded people capable of intelligently approaching non-standard problems was interpreted as a topical social problem in Russia. The stage of introducing the Elkonin – Davydov educational system into a mass school began, textbooks were urgently created and published in large editions, teacher retraining centers were opened throughout the country.

At that time, a system of advanced training of primary school teachers according to the Elkonin–Davydov system was organized on the basis of school No. 91. Along with psychologists – the authors of the training courses – experimental teachers took part in this work, they designed open lessons with the students, conducted and analyzed the designed lessons, created workbooks and control tasks on the Russian language and mathematics. With the participance of the teachers of school No. 91, a system of non-marking education in primary school ("assessment without a mark") was designed.

As it was introduced into educational practice, the Elkonin–Davydov system received official status and state recognition. In 1996, by decision of the Ministry of Education, this system became one of the three State primary education systems. In 1998, D.B. Elkonin (posthumously), V.V. Davydov and other researchers in his laboratory were awarded the prize of the President of the Russian Federation in the field of education for the creation of the Elkonin–Davydov system in elementary schools. In 1999, the prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of education was awarded to G.N. Kudina and Z.N. Novlyanskaya (staff of the Psychological Institute), and N.E. Burshtina and M.P. Romaneeva (teachers of school No. 91) for the creation of the course "Literature as a part of the aesthetic cycle of education". This course is  designed to be mastered during ten years of schooling. At the end of the twentieth century, about 10% of the total number of primary schools in Russia practiced the Elkonin–Davydov system. There were many schools that participated successfully in development and addition of this system, such as the Univer Gymnasium (city of Krasnoyarsk), the Eureka-Razvitie school (city of Tomsk), the School of Development (Moscow), etc.

Vasily V. Davydov died in 1998, and starting in 2000, already under the leadership of B.D. Elkonin and V.V. Rubtsov, V.V. Davydov's students and followers began targeted work on the project "Teenage (secondary) School in the Elkonin–Davydov educational system", as well as to develop and scientifically substantiate tools for evaluating the effectiveness of the educational process organized at School No. 91. During this period, school No. 91 regains its status as one of the main experimental sites; new training courses and new textbooks on literature, mathematics, biology, geography, physics and chemistry for grades 5-9 (secondary school) were tested there. At the same time, theoretical ideas about the specifics and developing possibilities of educational activities of teenagers were also formed. During 1995-2005, a study was conducted on the formation of learning independence of schoolchildren by means of learning activity (longitudinal observation and testing of students in two parallel classes who studied from the first to the tenth grade according to the Elkonin–Davydov system).

In general, it has been experimentally proven that the consistent and systematic construction of learning activity in lessons in primary and secondary school significantly increases the ability of schoolchildren to reflect in the intellectual sphere (students understand the grounds for their own actions and can act in a situation of contradictions and uncertainty), in the social sphere (a person understands points of view other than his own, and can coordinate different points of view), in the personal sphere (a person understands his deficits and knows how to fill them). In other words, several years before the emergence of new educational standards and the definition of meta-subject goals of education appeared, an idea and technology were developed about how a significant part of them could be achieved.

We are far from the idea that the Elkonin–Davydov system is the only way to achieve new educational goals. However, psychologists and educators who develop and practice Elkonin–Davydov education have collected a lot of evidence that at the moment this is a well-developed and verified way for children to develop the ability to learn, the ability to think and act intelligently and reflexively, to take into account the positions of other people.

Prospects for the development of theory and practice of learning activity

Based on the long-term development of the theory of developmental education by D.B. Elkonin-V.V. Davydov and half a century of practice of learning activity on the basis of school No. 91, we developed a project “Model of a modern school based on the system of developmental education by D.B. Elkonin-V.V. Davydov." This project was presented at a meeting of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Education in 2013. It was highly appreciated by reputable reviewers (Vice-President of Russian Academy of Education V.A. Bolotov, academician of Russian Academy of Education N.N. Nechaev), but it was not implemented at that time. An analysis of modern social demands on schools, on the one hand, and the current state of primary and secondary educational practice, on the other, allows us to consider this project as acutely relevant and meeting the challenges of today.

The purpose of the project. It is well known that the developmental effects of learning do not arise by themselves, do not appear as a student stays in an educational institution, but are the result of a specially organized joint activity of students and teachers. One of the main threats to building an education system that meets new goals and values is stagnation, when scientific research is aimed only at peripheral aspects of education and key issues of its modernization are not being developed:

  • How should (can)  joint activities of students and teachers be organized, developing students' independence and self-dependence, initiative and responsibility of thinking and behavior, ability and desire to learn?
  • What is the content of this activity, its structure and forms at all stages of education? How can the stages of education be linked together into a single, holistic process of human education, capable not only of mastering the means and methods of action accumulated in human culture, but also of transforming them into the tools of their own action, into means of solving their own problems?
  • What is and how is the professionalism of teachers responding to modern challenges, able to organize joint activities with students in a way that permits  to build up the moral and intellectual potential of students with independence, initiative and responsibility, possessing the possibilities of continuous self-education throughout their lives?

The project aims to answer these questions not only theoretically, but also practically.

Project objectives:

  • to build a working model (sample) of a school that meets the principles of developmental learning and the requirements of educational standards;
  • to provide the professional pedagogical community with technologies and methodological support for the work of primary and secondary schools solving new educational tasks;
  • to work out the mechanisms of translation of new pedagogical practices in pedagogical education.

The basis for solving these tasks are:

  • theory of educational activity developed by D.B. Elkonin, V.V. Davydov and their collaborators;
  • didactic principles of building learning  activity, embodied in educational and methodological kits for almost all school subjects included in the curriculum of primary and secondary schools;
  • the practice of building learning activity at school No. 91 in Moscow, where the Elkonin–Davydov system was created and developed in constant cooperation between teachers of the school and psychologists of the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education.

A brief analysis of the creation and development of the Elkonin–Davydov educational system, given in the article, allows us to answer the question why this system is currently becoming one of the fundamental foundations of activity pedagogy, and why new educational standards can be effectively implemented on its basis.

The content of the project. Currently, it is legitimate to say that the Elkonin–Davydov system is one of those "initial basic units" on the basis of which a new educational paradigm, anactivity pedagogy, was born and formed. At the same time, it was school No. 91 that was inextricably linked with the birth, growth and development of the activity pedagogy model based on the Elkonin–Davydov system, both biographically and organically. And for more than half a century of joint work of psychologists and teachers, they created that unique pedagogical organism "Institute–School", which generated and generates fundamentally new pedagogical practices. However, in order for school No. 91 to really take place as a model, as an operating model of a new type of school, providing solutions to educational problems of today and, most importantly, of tomorrow, it is necessary to understand:

  • What should be completed in the Elkonin–Davydov system in order for it to serve as a model and guideline for the general pedagogical community moving to activity practice?
  • What should be transformed in the work of School No. 91, Psychological Institute and University (MSUPE) so that the school can become an active resource center for training personnel capable of implementing the principles of an activity approach?

The formulation and solution of these issues defines a new direction of research and development related to the formation of a model of a modern school based on the Elkonin–Davydov system of developmental education that meets both the requirements of new educational standards and the guidelines of activity pedagogy.

An urgent task for the school is the systematic implementation of all training courses that have already been developed within the framework of the Elkonin–Davydov system and have methodological support. We are talking, first of all, about training courses for primary schools. Only when in grades 1-9 most of the lessons will be organized in the form of learning activity, the school, as a model of an activity-based approach to learning, will be able to become the basis for (a) teaching teachers, (b) researching the relationship of learning and development of schoolchildren at different levels of education. To solve this problem, it is necessary to train young teachers. Such training can be organized in the form of workshops, which will be conducted by experienced teachers of school No. 91, involving employees of the Psychological Institute and other authors of training courses on the Elkonin–Davydov system as a resource. Thus, the school acquires the status of a workshop, where new methods and techniques of organizing learning  activity are mastered.

The developers of the Elkonin–Davydov system will have to develop and test an integrated school model based on the didactic principles of the Elkonin–Davydov theory and taking into account the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. To do this, it is necessary:

  • to build a system of children's and teenagers activities in which learning  activity will be only one of the components (It is clear that learning activity can play its leading role in the development of younger schoolchildren only in an ensemble with "slaves", and in adolescence learning activity itself becomes "guided" by the other activities);
  • to substantiate the variety of forms of educational interaction, in which the classroom form will be only one of the components of the educational process;
  • Create mechanisms to ensure the normal ("non-traumatic") nature of educational transitions (transition from preschool to school childhood, and from primary to secondary school);
  • rework all educational and methodological materials to include them in the federal list;
  • develop and test a system for monitoring and diagnosing meta-subject learning outcomes for grades 1-9, including "starter" diagnostics;
  • to develop diagnostic tools for assessing the quality of the educational environment of primary schools.

Thus, the school acquires the status of a laboratory where fundamental and applied research is carried out, training courses and programs are developed and improved.

The most important task is to train personnel to work in the system of developmental education. The technologies of developmental learning involve the construction of qualitatively different relations between the teacher and the students than is customary in a traditional school. A deeper understanding of the scientific foundations of the subject of teaching is required. Special pedagogical techniques are required: the ability to organize group work of students, create a "trap", organize a meaningful discussion, work with diagrams and models. To solve these problems, MSUPE develops and implements a system of training, professional retraining and advanced training of teaching staff capable of working in accordance with the requirements of the system of developmental education of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov.  Educational modules with video accompaniment on activity pedagogy are being created for pedagogical universities and teacher training centers. Thus, the school acquires the status of an internship site, where the theory of pedagogical education intersects with the practice of working in a developing educational environment.

The tasks set in the project require the participation of a wide range of specialists. These are psychologists and teachers – designers of new developmental learning programs, practical teachers with extensive experience in testing training courses for primary and secondary schools of developmental learning, research psychologists and diagnosticians who create control and measuring tools to assess the educational and developmental effects of education, as well as specialists in statistics and psychodiagnostics, specialists in clinical psychology, programmers – for the development of digital educational resources. Combining the efforts of all specialists at the experimental school site will make it possible to create a model of a modern school based on the system of developmental education of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov.

The expected results of the project.

  1. An integrated model of the School of Activity Pedagogy developed on the basis of school No. 91 based on the system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov in accordance with the requirements for the developing educational environment, the content of the educational process and information-technical equipment of the school.
  2. The concept of a training course in the educational system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov in accordance with the new Federal State Educational Standards.
  3. The main educational program (OOP) of the school in the educational system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov (grades 1-9)
  4. A complete line of textbooks and educational materials for primary and secondary schools.
  5. Educational transition programs for first graders (to primary school) and fourth graders (to secondary school).
  6. The program of modular construction of basic school courses (natural sciences).
  7. Diagnostic tools for the examination of the quality of the educational environment of the school.
  8. A package of diagnostic methods and procedures for monitoring the educational achievements of schoolchildren and the developmental effects of school education.
  9. Training, retraining and advanced training programs for personnel to work within the framework of an integrated school model based on the principles of activity pedagogy based on the system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov.

The proposed project is still waiting to be implemented. However, work on the development of theory and practice of learning  activity is actively underway. Below is an incomplete list of textbooks and teaching aids for schools operating under the D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov system. Many works have been repeatedly republished and finalized on the basis of many years of testing and training practice. In our opinion, it is the best proof that the D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov school has developed a powerful potential for solving urgent problems of modern education.

    • First class

  1. Alexandrova E.I. Mathematics. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 1998.
  2. Alexandrova E.I. Mathematical prescriptions: textbook. handbook. M.: Vita-press, 2000.
  3. Alexandrova E.I. Methods of teaching mathematics in elementary school. M.: Vita-press, 2001.
  4. Alexandrova E.I. Textbook. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: Vita-press, 2000.
  5. Bezrukikh M.V. Prescriptions for the Elkonin Primer. Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 2002.
  6. Bugrimenko E.A., Zukerman G.A. Reading and writing according to D.B. Elkonin's primer. M.: Prosveshchenie, 1996.
  7. Rapture E.V. Brief methodological recommendations on the Russian language, 1st grade. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2002.
  8. Gorbov S.F. Teaching mathematics: method. the manual. M.: Vita-press, 2001.
  9. Davydov V.V., Gorbov S.F. et al. Mathematics: Textbook-notebook. Parts 1, 2, 3. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2001.
  10. Davydov V.V.,Gorbov S.F., etc. Mathematics: textbook. M.: Miros, 1998
  11. Zakharova A.M., Feshchenko T.I. Mathematics: textbook. 1st grade. Parts 1, 2, 3. Tomsk, 1992.
  12. Zakharova A.M., Feshchenko T.I. Developing mathematics education in the 1st grade: a teacher's manual. Tomsk, 1992.
  13. Lomakovich S.V., Timchenko L.I. Russian language. 1st grade: at 2 a.m.: Vita-Press, 2001.
  14. Mikulina G.G. Learning to understand mathematics. M.: Intor, 1995.
  15. Mikulina G.G. Savelyeva O.V. Control tests in mathematics. Variants 1, 2. M.: Narratives, 2000.
  16. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literary reading: textbook. M.: Onyx-21st century, 2001.
  17. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Methodological guide for teachers. M.: Onyx-21st century, 2001.
  18. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Workbook for the textbook. Moscow: Onyx-21st century, 2001.
  19. Olisova L.G. Notebooks for the primer. A set of three notebooks. Tomsk: Peleng, 1996-2001.
  20. Poluyanov Yu.A. Fine art and artistic work: method. recommendations for teachers. Moscow, 1998.
  21. Repkin V.V. Primer. Kharkov, 1992-1998; Tomsk: Bearing, 1993-1999; Moscow: Vita-press, 2001.
  22. Repkin V.V. Bukvar, Bukvarenok: workbooks. Kharkov, 1993-1999; Tomsk: Bearing, 1995-1999; Moscow: Vita-press, 2001-2005.
  23. Repkin V.V. et al. Russian language, 1st grade. Tomsk, 1993-2000; Moscow: Vita-press, 2001.
  24. Romaneeva M.P., Sukhoversha L.A. Workbook on the Russian language.
  25. Russian Russian Language Workbook, 1st grade. M.: Vita-press, 2002.
  26. Timchenko L.I. Workbook on the Russian language, 1st grade. M.: Vita-Press, 2001.
  27. Chudinova E.V. Natural science: the method. Manual. M.: Intor, 1998.
  28. Chudinova E.V. The surrounding world: method. recommendations for teachers. M.: Vita-Press, 2001.
  29. Chudinova E.V. The world around us: study books 1, 2. M.: Vita-Press, 2001.
  30. Chudinova E.V. Educational handbook of natural Science, grades 1-5. M.: Intor, 1997.
  31. Chudinova E.V., Bukvareva E.N. Natural science. Notebook, split album. M.: Intor,1996.
  32. Elkonin D.B. Primer for six-year-olds. M.: Enlightenment, 1996, 2000.
  33. Elkonin D.B., revised by Zuckerman G.A., Obukhovoy O.L. Primer. First grade: studies. the manual in two parts. M.: Binom, 2023
  34. Alexandrova E.I. Mathematics: textbook. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2001. 
    • Second grade

  35. Alexandrova E.I. Mathematics: textbook. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: House of Pedagogy, 1998.
  36. Alexandrova E.I. Methods of teaching mathematics in elementary school. 2nd grade. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2001.
  37. Alexandrova E.I. Textbook. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2001.
  38. Gorbov S.F. et al. Teaching mathematics. 2nd grade. Moscow, 1998.
  39. Davydov V.V., Gorbov S.F. Textbook. 2nd grade. Moscow, 1998.
  40. Zakharova A.M., Feshchenko T.I. Mathematics. 2nd grade.  Parts 1, 2, 3. Publishing house: Kharkov RIP "Original", 1992; ISBN: 5-7707-2353-X.
  41. Lomakovich S.V. Teaching Russian in elementary school. M.: Vita-Press, 2001.
  42. Lomakovich S.V., Timchenko L.I. Workbook on the Russian language. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2002.
  43. Lomakovich S.V., Timchenko L.I. Russian language. Parts 1, 2. Moscow: Vita-Press, 2001.
  44. Mikulina G.G., Savelyeva O.V. Control and verification works. 2nd grade. Variants 1, 2. Moscow, 2000.
  45. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literary reading: textbook. 2nd grade. Moscow, 2002.
  46. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Workbook for the textbook. M.: Onyx-21st century, 2002.
  47. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Texts for lessons. 2nd grade. M.: Intor, 1996.
  48. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literature: method. stipend. 2nd grade. Moscow: Intor, 1996.
  49. Repkin V.V. Russian spelling. Workbook. Grades 2-5. Tomsk, 2000.
  50. Repkin.V.V. et al. Russian language: textbook. Parts 1, 2. Tomsk, 2001.
  51. Romaneeva M.P., Sukhoversha L.A. Workbook on the Russian language. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 2002.
  52. Staragina I.P. Texts for copying. Kharkov, 1997.
  53. Staragina I.P. Workbook. Parts 1, 2. Tomsk, 2001.
  54. Staragina I.P. Learning to write: in two notebooks. Tomsk, 2001.
  55. Tabachnikova N.L. Control papers in mathematics. 2nd grade. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 1998.
  56. Chudinova E.V., Bukvareva E.L. Natural science. Notebook, split album. Moscow, 1996.
  57. Chudinova E.V. Natural science: method. manual on the experimental course. Moscow, 1996. 
    • Third grade

  58. Alexandrova E.I. Mathematics: textbook. Parts 1, 2. 3rd grade. M.: Vita-Press, 2002.
  59. Alexandrova E.I. Methods of teaching mathematics in elementary school. 3rd grade. M.: Vita-Press, 2002.
  60. Alexandrova E.I. Textbook. Parts 1, 2. Moscow. Vita-Press, 2002.
  61. Davydov V.V., Gorbov S.F. Mathematics: textbook. 3rd grade. Moscow, 1998.
  62. Mikulina G.G., Savelyeva O.V. Control and verification work. 3rd grade. Variants 1, 2. M.: Narratives, 2000.
  63. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literature: method. manual. M.: Intor, 1997.
  64. Novlyanskaya Z.N.,Kudina G.N. Texts for reading. 3rd grade. M.: Intor, 1997.
  65. Repkin V.V. et al. Russian language. Parts 1, 2. 3rd grade. Tomsk, 2002.
  66. Romaneeva M.P., Sukhoversha L.A. Workbook on the Russian language. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 2002.
  67. Tabochnikova N.L. Office work. Mathematics. 3rd grade. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 1998.
  68. Timchenko L.I., Lomakovich S.V. Russian language. Workbook. 3rd grade. Moscow, 1997.
  69. Chudinova E.V. Natural science. Class 3: method. manual on the experimental course. M.: Intor, 1997.
  70. Chudinova E.V.,Bukvareva E.N. Natural Science. A notebook, a split album. 3rd grade. M., Intor, 1997. 
    • Fifth grade

  71. Gorbov S.F. Tabachnikova N.L. Mathematics. 5th grade: textbook-notebook. Parts 1, 2. M.: Narratives, 2000.
  72. Gorbov S.F., Tabachnikova N.L. Teaching mathematics. 5th grade. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 2000.
  73. Zaslavsky V.M. Approach to the study of mathematics in grades 5-6 in developmental education. From work experience. Part 1. Moscow, 1996. 76c.
  74. Zaslavsky V.M. Approach to the study of mathematics in grades 5-6 in developmental education. From work experience. Part 2. Moscow, 1996. 128c.
  75. Kudina G.N., Novlyanskaya Z.N. Literature: texts for lessons. 5th grade.       Parts 1, 2. M., Intor, 1998.
  76. Repkin V.V. Russian language. 5th grade. Part 1. An introduction to syntax. Tomsk: Peleng, 2000.
  77. Repkin V.V. Russian language. 5th grade. Part 2. Phonetics and writing. Tomsk, 2000.
  78. Tabachnikova N.L. Control works. Mathematics. 5th grade. Part 1, 2. Moscow, 2000.
  79. Chudinova E.V. Natural science: method. manual. M.: Intor, 1998.
  80. Chudinova E.V. Weather: textbook-notebook. 5th grade. M.: Intor, 1998.
  81. Chudinova E.V., Bukvareva E.N. Natural science: notebook, split album. M.: Intor, 1998. 
    • Sixth grade

  82. Vorontsov A.B. The concept and program of geography in the system of developmental education (grades 6-8). Moscow, 1998.
  83. Gorbov S.F., Tabachnikova N.L. Mathematics. 6th grade: textbook-notebook. Moscow, 2000.
  84. Zaslavsky V.M. Approach to the study of mathematics in grades 5-6 in developmental education. From work experience. Part 3. Moscow, 1997.
  85. Kudina G.N. Novlyanskaya Z.N. Literature. Texts for lessons. 6th grade.     Parts 1, 2. M.: Intor, 1998.
  86. Kudina G.N., Novlyanskaya Z.N. Literature: method. stipend. 6th grade. M.: Intor, 1998.
  87. Lvovsky V.A. Physics: textbook No. 1. M.: Narratives, 2002.
  88. Repkin V.V. Russian language. 6th grade. Tomsk, 1998.
  89. Chudinova E.V. Biology.: workbook. Parts 1, 2, 3. Moscow: Intor, 1999-2000.
  90. Experimental educational programs in natural sciences / Ed. by B.D. Elkonin. 1 year of study. Moscow, 2000. 
    • Seventh grade

  91. Zaslavsky V.M. Mathematics. Set theory and logic. Part 1. Moscow, 1997.
  92. Zaslavsky V.M. Mathematics. Part 2. Moscow, 1998.
  93. Markidonova I.G. Russian language. Methodical assistance to the teacher. 7th grade. Tomsk, 2001.
  94. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literature: method. manual. M.: Intor, 1997.
  95. Novlyanskaya Z.N. Kudina G.N. Literature: texts for reading. Parts 1, 2. Moscow, 1997.
  96.  Repkin V.V. Russian language. 7th grade. Tomsk, 2000. 
    • Eighth and ninth grades 

  97. Novlyanskaya Z.N., Kudina G.N. Literature: texts for reading. Parts 1, 2. 3. Samara, 1999.
  98. Repkin V.V. Russian language. 8th grade. Tomsk, 1998.
  99. Markidonova I.G. Russian language. Methodical assistance to the teacher. Grades 8-9. Tomsk, 2001.
  100. The concept of developmental education in primary school. Educational programs (the system of D.B. Elkonin–V.V. Davydov) / Authors-compilers A.B. Vorontsov, E.V. Vysotskaya, E.V. Rapture, etc. Moscow, 2009.
  101. Self-help guide in physics. Workbook / Comp. V.A. Lvovsky. Moscow, 2009.
  102. Self-study guide in physics: textbook. manual / V.A. Lvovsky, V.Y. Gruk. Moscow. 2010.
  103. Self-help in physics. Reference guide / V.A. Lvovsky. Moscow, 2012.

Educational and methodological kits (textbooks, working materials for students and manuals for teachers), prepared for printing

  • Vorontsov A.B., Vysotskaya E.V., Lvovsky V.A., Chudinova E.V. Natural Science. Grades 5 and 6. The winner of the NFPC competition.
  • Gorbov S.F., Zaslavsky V.M., Morozova A.V., Tabachnikova N.L. Mathematics. Grades 5 and 6. The winner of the NFPC competition.
  • Kudina G.N., Novlyanskaya Z.N. Literary reading. Grades 5 and 6. The winner of the NFPC competition.
  • Poluyanov Yu.A., Mathis T.A. Fine art. Grades 5 and 6. The winner of the NFPC competition.
  • Repkin V.V., Rapture E.V., Nekrasova T.V., etc. Russian language. Grades 5 and 6. The winner of the NFPC competition.

References

  1. Voprosy psikhologii uchebnoi deyatel'nosti mladshikh shkol'nikov [Problems of psychology of learning activity of younger schoolchildren] / pod red. D. B. El'konina, V. V. Davydova [edited by D. B. Elkonin, V. V. Davydov]. Moscow, 1962. 288 p. 
  2. Federal'nyi gosudarstvennyi obrazovatel'nyi standart nachal'nogo obshchego obrazovaniya [The Federal State educational standard of primary general education].  – Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 2014. 53 p.

Information About the Authors

Vitaliy V. Rubtsov, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, President, Head of the International UNESCO Chair «Cultural-Historical Psychology of Childhood», Moscow State University of Psychology & Education (MSUPE), President of the Federation of Educational Psychologists of Russia, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2050-8587, e-mail: rubtsovvv@mgppu.ru

Boris D. Elkonin, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Laboratory of Psychology of Primary Schoolchildren, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3118-5154, e-mail: belconin@bk.ru

Galina A. Zuckerman, Doctor of Psychology, professor, Leading Research Fellow, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7982-6424, e-mail: galina.zuckerman@gmail.com

Irina M. Ulanovskaya, PhD in Psychology, Leading researcher, Laboratory of psychology of junor schoolchildren, Federal Scientific Center for Psychological and Interdisciplinary Research, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6605-0615, e-mail: iulanovskaya@mail.ru

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