Formative assessment (assessment for learning) educational achievements of students



We present definition of the concept of formative assessment and its significance for modern education. Displaying developmental approach in foreign studies, the further development, the risks and the possibility of their reduction. We discuss some of the techniques and examples of formative assessment. We investigate the relationship between formative and final evaluation, including the national curriculum levels

General Information

Keywords: formative assessment, assessment for learning, summative assessment, modernization of education, reforms in education, the planned level of educational outcomes, the national curriculum levels, scaffold

Journal rubric: Educational Psychology and Pedagogical Psychology


For citation: Zemlyаnskaya E.N. Formative assessment (assessment for learning) educational achievements of students [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2016. Vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 50–58. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2016050305. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Ainsworth L. Common formative assessment [Elektronnyi resurs]: An overview. The leadership and learning center, 2006. 1 p. URL: (Accessed: 17.04.2016).
  2. Black P. et al. Assessment For Learning. Putting it into practice. Berkshire: Open University Press, 2004. 135 p.
  3. Black P., William D. Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning. Oxford. 2008. 32 p.
  4. Black P.; Wiliam D. Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 1998. Vol.5, no. 1, pp. 7–74. doi. 10.1080/0969595980050102
  5. Clarke S., McCallum B., Lopez-Charles G. Gillingham partnership formative assessment project 2000-2001. London, Uk: Institute of Education, University of London, 2002.
  6. Crooks T.J. The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 1988. Vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 438–481. doi:10.3102/00346543058004438
  7. Fuchs L.S., Fuchs D. Effects of systematic formative evaluation: A meta-analysis. Exceptional Children, 1986. Vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 199–208. doi:10.1177/001440298605300301
  8. Gd1student [Elektronnyi resurs] URL: (Accessed: 17.04.2016).
  9. Greenstein L. What Teachers Really Need to Know About Formative Assessment [Elektronnyi resurs]. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2010. 194 p. URL: (Accessed: 17.04.2016).
  10. Harlen W. Effective teaching of science: a review of research. Scottish Council for Research in Education, Edinburgh, 1999. 105 p.
  11. Heritage M. Learning progressions: Supporting instruction and formative assessment [Elektronnyi resurs]. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008. 31 p. Available at: (Accessed 03.11.2016).
  12. Heritage M. The process of formative assessment // Presentation at the meeting of Iowa Assessment for Learning Institute. Des Moines, IA: Iowa Assessment for Learning Institute, 2009.
  13. Gullickson A.R. (еd.) Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. The student evaluation standards: How to improve evaluations of students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; Educational Policy Leadership Institute, 2003. 240 p.
  14. Literature R. Assessment For Learning (Formative Assessment) [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2009. 13 p. Available at: (Accessed 21.3.2016).
  15. Natriello G. The impact of evaluation processes on students. Educational Psychologist, 1987. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 155–175. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2202_4
  16. Sadler D.R. Formative assessment and the design of instructional strategies. Instructional Science, 1989. Vol. 18, pp. 119–144. doi:10.1007/BF00117714
  17. Shepard L.A. Formative assessment: Caveat emptor «ETS Invitational Confence The Future of Assessment: Shaping Teaching and Learning» [Elektronnyi resurs]. New York: ETS Invitational Conference, 2005. 37 p. Available at: (Accessed 03.11.2016).
  18. Tuttle H.G. Formative Assessment: Responding to your students». New York: Eye on Education, 2009. 160 p.
  19. Wiliam D. Formative assessment: Getting the focus right. Educational Assessment, 2006. Vol. 11(3 & 4), p. 289. doi: 10.1080/10627197.2006.9652993
  20. Wiliam D., Black P. Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. USA: Learning Sciences, 1990. 40 p.
  21. Black P., et al. Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 2004. Vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 9–21.

Information About the Authors

Elena N. Zemlyаnskaya, Doctor of Education, Dr. Sci. (Pedagogy), Professor, Head of the Theory and practice of primary education Chair, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:



Total: 3120
Previous month: 18
Current month: 6


Total: 9986
Previous month: 36
Current month: 6