Transition from school to employment for young people with disabilities in EU and US

12

Abstract

Decisions regarding career and education are among the most important ones young people make. Successful career guidance is an individual and a social benefit: it helps people make progress in school and work, but it also helps the efficient functioning of labor and educational markets, and contributes to a number of social policy objectives. This supports government investment in career guidance. Career guidance programs — in and out of school — have a formative impact on young people's understanding of themselves and the world of jobs and can improve outcomes in educational and social services, as well as in the economy. Therefore as young people continue the education and training longer and the labor market becomes more sophisticated, the need for career guidance increases. The article presents an overview of current approaches and methods in the career guidance for young people with disabilities in the European Union and the USA. Demographic characteristics and employment rate of the population with disabilities in the reviewed regions are given. The tools (“Individual Transition/Education Plan”) used to manage the transition from school to work are explored in details in the context of expectations and requirements from national legislation. The research describes the roles and tasks to be performed by all involved parties at various stages in the development of Individual Transition/Education Plans. Special attention is paid to the assessment of professional competences which are fundamental to start a successful career. Also areas for development in successful career guidance support are mentioned, including the need for schools to start the occupational education early and the essential role of exposure to the world of job.

General Information

Keywords: people with disabilities, individual transition plan (ITP), Individualized educational program (IEP), transition from school to employment, career guidance, employment

Journal rubric: Special (Branch) Psychology

Article type: review article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/jmfp.2023120406

Received: 25.09.2023

Accepted:

For citation: Shcherbakova A.M., Vinogradova E.S. Transition from school to employment for young people with disabilities in EU and US [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2023. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 62–76. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2023120406. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)

References

  1. Bazhin K.S., Simonova G.I., Bashmakova S.B. Formation of Professional Trajectory in Students with Disabilities in University [Formirovanie professional'noi traektorii studentov s invalidnost'yu v vuze] [Elektronnyi resurs]. In Rubtsova V.V. (ed.), Development of inclusion in higher education: a network approach: collection of articles. M.: MGPPU, 2018. pp. 47—54. (Library of the journal “Psychological Science and Education”). URL: https://psyjournals.ru/nonserialpublications/inclusdev_2018/contents/inclusdev_2018_Bazhin_Simonova_Bashmakova.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023). (In Russ.).
  2. Bystrova Yu.A. Vozmozhnosti psikhologicheskoi podderzhki i soprovozhdeniya molodykh lyudei s intellektual'nymi narusheniyami pri trudoustroistve [Opportunities for Psychological Support and Accompaniment of YOUNG People with Intellectual Disabilities in Employment]. Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya = Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2022. Vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 143—162. DOI:10.17759/cpp.2022300408 (In Russ.).
  3. Bystrova Yu.A. Podgotovka k professional'no-trudovoi deyatel'nosti uchashchikhsya s intellektual'nymi narusheniyami [Development of Social and Psychological Readiness for Professional and Working Life in Students with Intellectual Disabilities]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2022. Vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 54—61. DOI:10.17759/chp.2022180206 (In Russ.).
  4. Afanasiev D.V., Denisova O.A., Lekhanova O.L., Ponikarova V.N. Gotovnost' prepodavatelei vysshei shkoly k inklyuzivnomu obrazovaniyu [Higher Education Teacher Readiness for Inclusive Education]. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological-Educational Studies, 2019. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 128—142. DOI:10.17759/psyedu.2019110311 (In Russ.).
  5. Grandin T., Edelson S.M. Esli vy ne otkroete detyam mir, oni nichem ne zainteresuyutsya». Interv'yu s Templ Grandin [«If you don’t Expose Children, they are not Going to get Interested» Temple Grandin interview]. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya = Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2020. Vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 64—67. DOI:10.17759/autdd.2020180307 (In Russ.).
  6. Nicholas D. Trudoustroistvo lyudei s RAS. Analiz issledovanii i shagi dlya dal'neishego razvitiya [Activity Employment in Autism: Reflections on the Literature and Steps for Moving Forward]. Autizm i narusheniya razvitiya = Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2020. Vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 5—11. DOI:10.17759/autdd.2020180301 (In Russ.).
  7. US Departament of education. A transition guide to postsecondary education and employment for students and youth with disabilities [Elektronnyi resurs]. Washington: US Departament of education, 2020. 60 p. URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20231216173418/https://sites.ed.gov/idea/files/postsecondary-transition-guide-august-2020.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  8. Brewer G., Urwin E., Witham B. Disabled student experiences of Higher Education. Disability & Society, 2023. 20 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2023.2263633
  9. Werner S., Gumpel T.P., Koller J., Wiesenthal V., Weintraub N. Can Self-Efficacy Mediate Between Knowledge of Policy, School Support and Teacher Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education? PLoS ONE, 2021. Vol. 16, no. 9, article ID e0257657. 17 p. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0257657
  10. Allison R., Hyatt J., Owens L., Clark K.A., Test D.W. Competitive Integrated Employment: Toolkit [Elektronnyi resurs]. National Technical Assistance Center on Transition. Charlotte: University of North Carolina, 2017. 66 p. URL: https://transitionta.org/wp-content/uploads/docs/toolkit_CIE.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  11. Bjørnerås A.B., Langørgen E., Witsø A.E., Kvam L., Myhr D., Andersen J.M.R., Goodall G., Horghagen S. Disabled student ambassadors promote inclusion in Norwegian higher education: building competencies and strategies for the future. Disability & Society, 2023. 25 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2023.2279490
  12. European Commission. European comparative data on Europe 2020 and persons with disabilities: labour market, education, poverty and health analysis and trends [Elektronnyi resurs]. Brussel: European Commission, 2021. 189 p. URL: https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2767/745317 (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  13. Eurostat. European Union — Statistics on Income and Living Conditions: Dataset. EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions microdata 2004—2019, release 2 in 2020. 2020. 4 p. DOI:10.2907/EUSILC2004-2019V.1
  14. Chipchase S.Y., Seddon A., Tyers H., Thomas S. Experience of university life by disabled undergraduate students: the need to consider extra-curricular opportunities. Disability & Society, 2023. 18 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2023.2233687
  15. Fabian E.S. Urban youth with disabilities: Factors affecting transition employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 2007. Vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 130—138. DOI:10.1177/00343552070500030101
  16. Soriano V. (ed.). Individual Transition Plans. Supporting the Move from School to Employment [Elektronnyi resurs]. Brussel: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, 2006. 44 p. URL: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/individual-transition-plans_itp_en.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  17. Zeilinger E.L., Stiehl K.A.M., Bagnall H., Scior K. Intellectual disability literacy and its connection to stigma: A multinational comparison study in three European countries. PLoS ONE, 2020. Vol. 15, no. 10, article ID e0239936. 14 p. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0239936
  18. Ioerger M., Machia L.V., Turk M.A. Self-other overlap: A unique predictor of willingness to work with people with disability as part of one’s career. PLoS ONE, 2019. Vol. 14 (8), article ID e0220722. 27 p. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0220722
  19. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Know the rights that protect individuals with disabilities from discrimination [Elektronnyi resurs]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Enhancing the health and well-being of all Americans. Washington, [n. d.]. 2 p. URL: https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/knowyourrights504adafactsheet.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  20. Levinson E.M., Palmer E.J. Preparing Students With Disabilities for School-to-Work Transition and Postschool Life [Elektronnyi resurs]. Counseling 101, 2005, pp. 11—15. URL: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Preparing-Students-With-Disabilities-for-Transition-Levinson-Palmer/a82076aae44d70651a9fb5d7db593717ee8648e3?utm_source=direct_link (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  21. Musset P., Kurekova L.M. Working it out: Career Guidance and Employer Engagement. OECD Education Working Papers. № 175. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2018. 92 p. DOI:10.1787/51c9d18d-en
  22. Mynatt B.S., Gibbons M.M. Preparing Students With Disabilities for Their Future Careers [Elektronnyi resurs]. American Counseling Association. 2011. 7 p. URL: https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/vistas/2011-v-online/Article_08.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  23. Olsen J. Employers: influencing disabled people’s employment through responses to reasonable adjustments. Disability & Society, 2022. 20 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2022.2099251
  24. Baldridge D.C., Beatty J., Böhm S.A., Kulkarni M., Moore M. Persons with (dis)abilities. In Colella A. & King E. (eds.), The Oxford handbook of workplace discrimination. N.Y: Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 111—127. DOI:10.1093/oxford-hb/9780199363643.013.9
  25. Persons with a disability: labor force characteristics —2022 [Elektronnyi resurs]. Washington: Bureau of labor statistics, 2022. 11 p. URL: https://adasoutheast.org/new-data-persons-with-a-disability-labor-force-characteristics-2022 (Accessed 29.12.2023).
  26. Khayatzadeh-Mahani A., Wittevrongel K., Nicholas D.B., Zwicker J.D. Prioritizing barriers and solutions to improve employment for persons with developmental disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2020. Vol. 42, no. 19, pp. 2696—2706. DOI:10.1080/09638288.2019.1570356
  27. Russell C. Education, Employment and Training Policies and programmes for Youth with Disabilities in four European Countries [Elektronnyi resurs]. Geneva: ILO, 1998. 46 p. URL: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/documents/publication/wcms_120230.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  28. Schloemer-Jarvis A., Bader B., Böhm S.A. The role of human resource practices for including persons with disabilities in the workforce: a systematic literature review. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2022. Vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 45—98. DOI:10.1080/09585192.2021.1996433
  29. Ma B.H., Badji S., Petrie D., Llewellyn G., Chen G. Social interventions to support people with disability: A systematic review of economic evaluation studies. PLoS ONE, 2023. Vol. 18 (1), article ID e0278930. 18 p. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0278930
  30. Strindlund L., Abrandt-Dahlgren M., Ståhl C. Employers’ views on disability, employability, and labor market inclusion: a phenomenographic study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2019. Vol. 41, no. 24, pp. 2910—2917. DOI:10.1080/09638288.2018.1481150
  31. U.S. Department of Education. The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) [Elektronnyi resurs]. 2004. URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20240107213526/https://sites.ed.gov/idea/about-idea/ (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  32. Amaral C., Chamorro-Koc M., Beatson A., Gottlieb U., Tuzovic S., Bowring N. The journey to work of young adults with mobility disability: a qualitative study on the digital technologies that support mobility. Disability & Society, 2023. 22 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2023.2275521
  33. Kane M., Berryman S., Goslin D., Meltzer. A. The secretary's commission on achieving necessary skillsm [Elektronnyi resurs]. Washington: Pelavin associates inc, 1990. 48 p. URL: https://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/idsrw/idsrw.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  34. Soriano V. (ed.). Transition from School to Employment. Main problems, issues and options faced by students with special educational needs in 16 European countries: Summary Report [Elektronnyi resurs]. Brussel: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education, 2002. 46 p. URL: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/transition-from-school-to-employment_Transition-en.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).
  35. Vedeler J.S. How is disability addressed in a job interview? Disability & Society, 2023. 20 p. DOI:10.1080/09687599.2022.2162860
  36. Wasburn-Moses L. Obstacles to Program Effectiveness in Secondary Special Education. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 2006. Vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 21—30. DOI:10.3200/PSFL.50.3.21-30
  37. Williams-Diehm K.L., Lynch P.S. Student knowledge and perceptions of individual transition planning and its process [Elektronnyi resurs]. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 2007. Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 13—21. URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ841378.pdf (Accessed 28.12.2023).

Information About the Authors

Anna M. Shcherbakova, PhD in Education, Senior Researcher, Leading Researcher, Professor, Chair of Special Psychology and Rehabilitation, Department of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State Univerity of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8932-4102, e-mail: shcherbakova.a.m@eyandex.ru

Ekaterina S. Vinogradova, PhD Student, Department of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0008-3327-9630, e-mail: vinogradova.ek@gmail.com

Metrics

Views

Total: 27
Previous month: 0
Current month: 27

Downloads

Total: 12
Previous month: 0
Current month: 12