Transition from school to employment for young people with disabilities in EU and US



Decisions regarding career and education are among the most important ones young people make. Successful career guidance is an individual and a social benefit: it helps people make progress in school and work, but it also helps the efficient functioning of labor and educational markets, and contributes to a number of social policy objectives. This supports government investment in career guidance. Career guidance programs — in and out of school — have a formative impact on young people's understanding of themselves and the world of jobs and can improve outcomes in educational and social services, as well as in the economy. Therefore as young people continue the education and training longer and the labor market becomes more sophisticated, the need for career guidance increases. The article presents an overview of current approaches and methods in the career guidance for young people with disabilities in the European Union and the USA. Demographic characteristics and employment rate of the population with disabilities in the reviewed regions are given. The tools (“Individual Transition/Education Plan”) used to manage the transition from school to work are explored in details in the context of expectations and requirements from national legislation. The research describes the roles and tasks to be performed by all involved parties at various stages in the development of Individual Transition/Education Plans. Special attention is paid to the assessment of professional competences which are fundamental to start a successful career. Also areas for development in successful career guidance support are mentioned, including the need for schools to start the occupational education early and the essential role of exposure to the world of job.

General Information

Keywords: people with disabilities, individual transition plan (ITP), Individualized educational program (IEP), transition from school to employment, career guidance, employment

Journal rubric: Special (Branch) Psychology

Article type: review article


Received: 25.09.2023


For citation: Shcherbakova A.M., Vinogradova E.S. Transition from school to employment for young people with disabilities in EU and US [Elektronnyi resurs]. Sovremennaia zarubezhnaia psikhologiia = Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology, 2023. Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 62–76. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2023120406. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


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Information About the Authors

Anna M. Shcherbakova, PhD in Education, Senior Researcher, Leading Researcher, Professor, Chair of Special Psychology and Rehabilitation, Department of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State Univerity of Psychology and Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Ekaterina S. Vinogradova, PhD Student, Department of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



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