Impact of Conscious Self-Regulation, Engagement and Motivation on Academic Performance of Schoolchildren During Different Periods of Study



The paper is devoted to the problem of the relationship between conscious self-regulation, school engagement and motivation, as well as the specifics of their contributions to the academic performance of schoolchildren during different pe-riods of study. For the first time, a 5-factor structure of the relationship between self-regulation, engagement, personality traits, and academic motivation was described in a sample of 1103 students in grades 5—11 of general education schools. We evaluated the contribution of these factors to the academic achieve¬ment of students in three periods of school education (in middle school, during the transition from middle to high school, and in high school). It is shown that the factors “Goal-setting and engagement” and “Cognitive and social activity”, which include regulatory, motivational, personality features and engagement, make a significant contribution to the academic performance of students, regardless of the period of learning. Regulatory processes of modelling significant condi¬tions for achieving the goal and evaluating the results as part of the “Operational Regulation” factor provide high achievement for students in grades 5—6. We also revealed the negative influence of the “External Motivation” factor on the aca¬demic performance of high school students and the positive contribution of the “Neuroticism and Anxiety” factor to the annual final grades in this period of study. The results are discussed in the context of age-related and educational tasks that are solved by students during school education.

General Information

Keywords: conscious self-regulation, school engagement, academic motivation, academic achievement

Journal rubric: Psychology at School

Article type: scientific article


Funding. The reported study was funded by Russian Science Foundation, Research Project No. 20-18-00470 “Self-regulation and School Engagement as Psychological Resources of Academic Success: A Longitudinal Study”.

Received: 03.09.2021


For citation: Ishmuratova Y.A., Potanina A.M., Bondarenko I.N. Impact of Conscious Self-Regulation, Engagement and Motivation on Academic Performance of Schoolchildren During Different Periods of Study. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological Science and Education, 2021. Vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 17–29. DOI: 10.17759/pse.2021260502. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Kovas Yu.V. Vzaimosvyaz’ regulyatornykh, intellektual’nykh i kognitivnykh osobennostei uchashchikhsya s matematicheskoi uspeshnost’yu [The relationship between regulatory, intellectual and cognitive characteristics in students who are successful in mathematics]. Psikhologicheskie issledovaniya = Psychological studies, 2014. Vol. 7, no. 34. Available at: morosanova34 (Accessed 07.05.2021). (In Russ.).
  2. Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Ovanesbekova M.L. Vozrastnaya spetsifika vzaimosvyazi osoznannoi samoregulyatsii, akademicheskoi motivatsii i lichnostnykh osobennostei uchashchikhsya [Age specificity of the relationship of conscious self-regulation, academic motivation and personality characteristics of students]. Teoreticheskaya i eksperimental’naya psikhologiya = Тheoretical and experimental psychology, 2017. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 34—45. (In Russ.).
  3. Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Tsyganov I.Yu. Osoznannaya samoregulyatsiya i otnoshenie k ucheniyu kak resursy akademicheskoi uspeshnosti [Conscious self-regulation and attitude to learning as resources of academic success]. Voprosy psikhologii = Questions of psychology, 2017, no. 4, pp. 64—75. (In Russ.).
  4. Morosanova V.I. Razvitie resursnogo podkhoda k issledovaniyu osoznannoi samoregulyatsii dostizheniya tselei i samorazvitiya cheloveka [Development of the resource approach to the study of conscious self-regulation of achieving goals and self-development of a person]. In Zinchenko Yu.P., Morosanova V.I. (eds.). Psikhologiya samoregulyatsii: evolyutsiya podkhodov i vyzovy vremeni [Psychology of self-regulation: evolution of approaches and challenges of time]. Moscow; Saint- Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2020, pp. 11—36. (In Russ.).
  5. Fomina T.G. [i dr.] Osobennosti vzaimosvyazi osoznannoi samoregulyatsii i shkol’noi vovlechennosti [Features of the relationship between conscious self-regulation and school engagement]. Materialy Vtoroi Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii «Lichnost’, intellekt, metakognitsii: issledovatel’skie podkhody i obrazovatel’nye praktiki» (g. Kaluga, 01—03 oktyabrya 2020 g.). [Proceedings of the Second All-Russian scientific-practical conference “Personality, intelligence, metacognitions: research issues and educational practices”]. Kaluga: FBGOU VPO “Kaluzhskii gosudarstvennyi universitet im. K.E. Tsiolkovskogo”, 2020, pp. 55—64. (In Russ.).
  6. Gordeeva T.O. [i dr.] Shkaly vnutrennei i vneshnei akademicheskoi motivatsii shkol’nikov [Intrinsic and extrinsic academic motivation scale for schoolchildren]. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie = Psychological science and education, 2017. Vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 65—74. DOI:10.17759/pse.2017220206 (In Russ.).
  7. Ansari A., Hofkens T.L., Pianta R.C. Teacher-student relationships across the first seven years of education and adolescent outcomes. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2020. Vol. 71. Article 101200. DOI:10.1016/j.appdev.2020.101200
  8. Csikszentmihalyi M. Beyond boredom and anxiety. New Jersey: Jossey-Bass, 2000. 231 p.
  9. Dent A.L., Koenka A.C. The relation between self-regulated learning and academic achievement across childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 2016. Vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 425—474. DOI:10.1007/s10648-015-9320-8
  10. Dogan U. Student Engagement, Academic Self-efficacy, and Academic Motivation as Predictors of Academic Performance. The Anthropologist, 2015. Vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 553—561. DOI:10.1080/09720073. 2015.11891759
  11. Fredricks J.A., McColskey W. The measurement of student engagement: a comparative analysis of various methods and student self-report instruments. In Christenson S.L. et al. (eds.). Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. MA, Boston: Springer, 2012, pp. 763—782. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_37
  12. Fredricks J.A., Filsecker M., Lawson M.A. Student engagement, context, and adjustment: addressing definitional, measurement, and methodological issues. Learning and Instruction, 2016. Vol. 43, pp. 1—4. DOI:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.002
  13. Froiland J.M., Worrell F.C. Intrinsic motivation, learning goals, engagement, and achievement in a diverse high school. Psychology in the Schools, 2016. Vol. 53, pp. 321—336. DOI:10.1002/pits.21901
  14. Lei H., Cui Y., Zhou W. Relationships between student engagement and academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality, 2018. Vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 517—528. DOI:10.2224/sbp.7054
  15. Martin A.J., Ginns P., Papworth B. Motivation and engagement: Same or different? Does it matter? Learning and Individual Differences, 2017. Vol. 55, pp. 150—162. DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2017.03.013
  16. Morales-Vives F., Camps E., Dueñas J.M. Predicting academic achievement in adolescents: The role of maturity, intelligence and personality. Psicothema, 2020. Vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 84—91. DOI:10.7334/ psicothema2019.262
  17. Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G., Bondarenko I.N. Academic achievement: intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors. Psychology in Russia, 2015. Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 136—156. DOI:10.11621/pir .2015 .03011
  18. Morosanova V., Bondarenko I., Fomina T., Burmistrova-Savenkova A. Self-regulation, personality factors, academic achievement in middle and senior school: variations across grade level. The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioral Sciences EpSBS, 2018, no. 43, pp. 401—410. DOI:10.15405/ epsbs.2018.07.53
  19. Putwain D.W., Nicholson L., Pekrun R., Becker S., Symes W. Expectancy of Success, Attainment Value, Engagement, and Achievement: A Moderated Mediation Analysis. Learning and Instruction, 2019. Vol. 60, pp. 117—125. DOI:10.1016/j. learninstruc.2018.11.005
  20. Reschly A.L., Christenson S.L. Jingle, jangle, and conceptual haziness: evolution and future directions of the engagement construct. In Christenson S.L. et al. (eds.). Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. MA, Boston: Springer, 2012, pp. 3—21. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_37
  21. Stefansson K., Gestsdottir S., Birgisdottir F., Lerner R.M. School engagement and intentional self-regulation: a reciprocal relation in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 2018. Vol. 64, pp. 23—33. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.01.005
  22. Torrecilla Sánchez E.M., Miguélañez S.O., Abad F.M. Explanatory factors as predictors of academic achievement in PISA tests. An analysis of the moderating effect of gender. International Journal of Educational Research, 2019. Vol. 96, pp. 111—119. DOI:10.1016/j. ijer.2019.06.002
  23. Musu-Gillette L.E. [et al.] Trajectories of change in students’ self-concepts of ability and values in math and college major choice. Educational research and evaluation, 2015. Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 343—370. DOI:10. 1080/13803611.2015.1057161
  24. Wang M.-T., Eccles J.S. School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: a longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 2013. Vol. 28, pp. 12—23. DOI:10.1016/j. learninstruc.2013.04.002
  25. Wang M.-T., Fredricks J., Ye F., Hofkens T., Linn J.S. Conceptualization and assessment of adolescents’ engagement and disengagement in school: a multidimensional school engagement scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 2019.  Vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 592—606. DOI:10.1027/1015-5759/ a000431
  26. Wigfield A., Wagner A.L. Competence, motivation, and identity development during adolescence. In Elliot J.A., Dweck S.C. (eds.). Handbook of competence and motivation. New York.: The Guilford Press, 2005, pp. 222—239.

Information About the Authors

Yulia A. Ishmuratova, Researcher, Laboratory of Psychology of Self-Regulation, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Anna M. Potanina, Researcher at the Laboratory of Self-Regulation Psychology, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Irina N. Bondarenko, PhD in Psychology, Leading Researcher, Department of Psychology of Self-regulation, Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education,, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 699
Previous month: 26
Current month: 17


Total: 338
Previous month: 11
Current month: 5