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Культурно-историческая психология - №4 / 2008 | Перейти к описанию
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Культурно-историческая психология

Издатель: Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет

ISSN (печатная версия): 1816-5435

ISSN (online): 2224-8935

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/chp

Лицензия: CC BY-NC 4.0

Издается с 2005 года

Периодичность: 4 номера в год

Доступ к электронным архивам: открытый

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The zone of proximal development in play and learning 2282


Хаккарайнен П.
PhD, главный редактор Journal of Russian and East European Psychology (Журнала российской и восточноевропейской психологии). Эмерит-профессор, Университет Оулу, Оулу, Финляндия
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6725-1822
e-mail: phakkar@gmail.com

Бредиките М.
PhD, старший научный сотрудник, доцент, Университет Витовта Великого, Вильнюс, Литва
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0667-6477
e-mail: milda.bredikyte@vdu.lt


The concept of the ZPD is characterized in a different way in two separate contexts (school and play) in Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology. Creative and motivational aspect of learning is emphasized in development supported by play. In play context personality development is focused on and development of psychological functions in problem solving at school. We proposed an extended concept of the ZPD, which integrates the two definitions and includes an additional distance from potentials to personality changes. In play development from the crisis of the third year to the next crisis at seven we suggest three different types of the ZPD depending on the play initiatives.

Ключевые слова: зона ближайшего развития, игра, обучение

Рубрика: Проблема развития

Тип: научная статья

Ссылка для цитирования

Фрагмент статьи

The comparison of two main definitions of the ZPD demonstrated that they emphasize different aspects and levels of human development. The definition in school context focuses on the development of psychological functions and in play context on system level connections between functions and personality. On the basis of published texts we can conclude that Vygotsky aimed at unified concept of the ZPD. In both contexts the relations between learning and development was emphasized as the main developmental factor. In order to elaborate the proposed unified concept of the ZPD it is necessary to specify and update our understanding of learning as the key to developmental changes [21]. Vygotsky's approach to learning as joint, collaborative activity is seminal, but problem solving context in school setting is trivial in comparison to his theoretical frame. In western interpretations problem solving is an individual enterprise and the teacher is just a helper, not a learning partner. Adult help is not a mutual process in these interpretations as Zuckerman [53] proposes. Learning in play is an uncharted territory in psychology and educational theory. One of the most famous representatives of play theory, Brian Sutton-Smith [40] argues that (western) play research has not been able to reveal the essence of play. The same can be said about learning in play, which is most often evaluated using formal cognitive criteria of school learning. Central aspects of development in Vygotsky's definition are not present in this evaluation. Learning is not connected to "action in the imaginary field, in the imagined situation, building of voluntary intention, the construction of life-plan, motives of willing", which were listed as central features of the ZPD in play. Learning in play is first of all connected to the development of learning motivation on general level [5, 12, 22]. We propose an expanded definition of the ZPD combining the two original definitions. This definition proposes two distances: 1) between individual action and joint higher level potential, and 2) between joint higher-level potential and qualitative change in personality. Learning is not limited in this definition to individual or joint problem solving. A decisive step is learning, which leads from potentials to personality change. If we are satisfied with correct problem solving we can talk about changes in problem solving, not about development. Applied to play development we propose three qualitatively different types of zones of proximal development for the whole play age from three to seven years. As far we understand Vygotsky was talking about the last type of ZPD in his lectures on play. An important aspect in our typology is the social situation of development and qualitative changes in adult help. Different types of adult help focus on different aspects of learning in play context. Our proposals aiming at integration of two original definitions of the ZPD have a preliminary character. We understand that much research work has to be done for revealing the whole picture of learning in play and its role in human development.

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