Individual and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Families as Factors of Mental Health in Children



The paper presents results of a longitudinal study on child temperament in infancy and early childhood and the possible impacts of socioeconomic status of a child's family on his/her mental health in the future. The study involved 100 children and employed a set of questionnaires for parents: the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for assessing mental health, and a separate social questionnaire. The out¬comes indicate that volitional regulation is an important factor in preventing mental health issues in the chil¬dren; its predictive impact varies between 4 and 20%. Among the average level dimensions the highest impact was that of Low-intensity Pleasure. Socioeconomic status of the family, on the opposite, was found not to have any significance in predicting the future mental health of the child. All in all, this longitudinal research con¬tributes greatly to the understanding of how infant and early childhood temperament and socioeconomic char-acteristics of the family shape the prospective mental health in Russian children.

General Information

Keywords: mental health, temperament, socioeconomic factors, children, longitudinal study

Journal rubric: Developmental Psychology

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Kozlova E.A., Slobodskaya E.R., Akhmetova O.A. Individual and Socioeconomic Characteristics of Families as Factors of Mental Health in Children . Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya = Cultural-Historical Psychology, 2014. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 46–53. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1.  Slobodskaya H.R., Akhmetova O.A. Vzaimodeistvie lichnostnykh i semeinykh faktorov blagopoluchiia detei [Interactions between personality and family factors: implica­tions for child well-being]. Kul'turno-istoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology], 2012, no. 2, pp. 60—68 (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  2.  In Slobodskaya E.R. Detstvo ideal'noe i nastoyashchee: Sbornik rabot sovremennykh zapadnykh uchenykh [The meaning of temperament for psychiatric practice. Ideal and real childhood]. Novosibirsk: Sibirskii khronograf, 1994, pp. 131—144.
  3.  Moffitt T.E. [et al.] A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011. Vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 2693— 2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108
  4.  Baumeister R F., Vohs K.D., Tice D.M. The strength model of self-control. Current directions in psychological sci­ence, 2007. Vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 351—355. doi: 10.1111/j.1467­8721.2007.00534.x
  5.  Bradley R.H., Corwyn R.F. Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual review of psychology, 2002. Vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 371—399. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901. 135233
  6.  Caspi A., Shiner R.L. Temperament and personality. Rutter M. et al. (eds.). Rutter's child and adolescent psychiatry. London: Blackwell, 2008, pp. 182—198.
  7.  Gartstein M.A. [et al.] Cross-cultural Differences in the Development of Behavior Problems: Contributions of Infant Temperament in Russia and U.S. International Journal of Developmental Science, 2013. Vol. 7, pp. 95—104. doi: 10.3233/DEV-1312104
  8.  Koenen K.C. [et al.]. Early childhood factors associat­ed with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort. Psychological medi­cine, 2007. Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 181—192. doi: 10.1017/ S0033291706009019
  9.  Finzi-Dottan R., Manor I., Tyano S. ADHD, tempera­ment, and parental style as predictors of the child's attach­ment patterns. Child psychiatry and human development, 2006. Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 103—114. doi: 10.1007/s10578-006-0024-7
  10.  Gartstein M.A., Slobodskaya H.R., Kinsht I.A. Cross-cultural differences in temperament in the first year of life: United States of America (U.S.) and Russia. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2003. Vol. 27, no 4, pp. 316—328.
  11.  Goodman R., Slobodskaya H., Knyazev G. Russian child mental health. A cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk factors. European child and adolescent psychiatry, 2005. Vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 28—33. doi: 10.1007/s00787-005-0420-8
  12.  Krueger R.F., Markon K.E. Understanding psy­chopathology melding behavior genetics, personality, and quantitative psychology to develop an empirically based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2006. Vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 113—117. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006. 00418.x
  13.  Lengua L.J. Associations among emotionality, self-reg­ulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in mid­dle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2003. Vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 595—618. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2003.
  14.  Loeber R. [et al.]. Male mental health problems, psy­chopathy, and personality traits: Key findings from the first 14 years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2001. Vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 273—297. doi: 10.1023/A:1013574903810
  15.  Meltzer H.[et al.] Mental health of children and ado­lescents in Great Britain. London: The Stationery Office, 2000. 30 p.
  16.  Muris P., Ollendick T.H. The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical child and fam­ily psychology review, 2005. Vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 271—289. doi: 10.1007/s10567-005-8809-y
  17.  Ozer D.J., Benet-Martinez V. Personality and the pre­diction of consequential outcomes. Annu. Rev. Psychol, 2006. Vol. 57, pp. 401—421. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904. 190127
  18.  Pauli-Pott U. [et al.] Parental perceptions and infant temperament development. Infant Behavior and Development, 2003. Vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27—48.
  19.  Rothbart M.K., Posner M.I. Temperament, attention, and developmental psychopathology. Developmental psy­chopathology: Vol. 2. Developmental Neuroscience (2nd ed.). 08.002
  20. D. Cicchetti, D. Cohen (Eds.). New York: Wiley, 2006, pp. 465—501.
  21.  Rothbart M.K. Temperament, development, and per­sonality. Current directions in psychological science, 2007. Vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 207—212. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007. 00505.x
  22.  Rutter M. (eds.). Rutter's child and adolescent psychi­atry. Oxford, UK, Blackwell, 2008. 1230 p.
  23.  Slobodskaya H.R., Akhmetova O.A. Personality devel­opment and problem behavior in Russian children and adoles­cents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2010. Vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 441—451. doi: 10.1177/0165025409352825
  24.  Roberts B.W. [et al.]. The power of personality: The comparative validity of personality traits, socioeconomic sta­tus, and cognitive ability for predicting important life out­comes. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2007. Vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 313—345. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00047.x


Information About the Authors

Elena A. Kozlova, Junior research fellow, Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, e-mail:

Elena R. Slobodskaya, Doctor of Psychology, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Chief Researcher, Federal StateBbudgetary Scientific Institution "Research Institute of Physiology and Fundamental Medicine", Novosibirsk, Russia, e-mail:

Olga A. Akhmetova, Researcher at the Scientific Research Institute of Physiology, Siberean Department of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, e-mail:



Total: 2548
Previous month: 7
Current month: 7


Total: 1168
Previous month: 3
Current month: 0