The Scale of Emotional Distress and Atypical Behavior of Preschool Children



The article presents a new questionnaire "Scale of emotional distress and atypical behavior" and the results of its testing on 743 children aged 16 months to 91 months, attending kindergartens or developmental groups. The items of full scale and each of the five subscales of the questionnaire (uncooperativeness, anxiety, depression, maladaptive behavior, hyperactivity / disinhibition) showed high internal consistency: Corresponding Cronbach's alpha figures are the following: 0.92; 0.9; 0.8; 0.82; 0.8; 0.87. Have been established the criteria for the severity of emotional distress and atypical behavior, based on the values of the 70th 95th percentile indexes of each of the scales. It was revealed that the combined variants of emotional and behavioral problems of the early and pre-school aged children are found in 38% of cases.

General Information

Keywords: emotional distress, atypical behavior, early age, preschool age

Journal rubric: Methods and Techniques

Article type: scientific article

For citation: Kazmin A.M., Konovko N., Salnikova O., Tupitsina E., Fedina E.V. The Scale of Emotional Distress and Atypical Behavior of Preschool Children [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2014. Vol. 3, no. 3 (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Basilova T.A. Problemy narusheniya povedeniya u detei s sensornymi nedostatkami // Korrekciya i profilaktika narushenii povedeniya u detei s ogranichennymi vozmojnostyami zdorov'ya. Materialy I Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii (17-18 oktyabrya 2011).
  2. Belopol'skaya N.L. Problemy psihologicheskoi diagnostiki i korrekcii narushenii povedeniya u detei // Korrekciya i profilaktika narushenii povedeniya u detei s ogranichennymi vozmojnostyami zdorov'ya. Materialy I Vserossiiskoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii (17-18 oktyabrya 2011)
  3. Lavrent'eva G.P., Titarenko T.M. Prakticheskaya psihologiya dlya vospitatelya. Kiev, 1992.
  4. Achenbach, T.M.,& Rescorla, L.A. (2000) Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles, Burlington, V.T.: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
  5. Auerbach  J.G., Berger A., Atzaba-Poria N., Arbelle S., Cypin N., Friedman A., Landau R. (2008) Temperament at 7, 12, and 25 months in children at familial risk for ADHD// Infant and Child Development, Volume 17, Issue 4.
  6. Bagnato S.J., Neisworth J. T., Salvia J. J., Hunt F. M. (1999) Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS) Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction
  7. Brauner C.B., Stephens C.B. (2006), Estimating the Prevalence of Early Childhood Serious Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Challenges and Recommendations // Public Health Reports, Volume 121
  8. Fox N.A., Henderson H.A., Marshall P.J., Nichols K.E., Ghera M.M. (2005) Behavioral inhibition: linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework//Annu Rev Psychol. ; 56
  9. Fox N.A., Pine D.S. (2012) Temperament and the emergence of anxiety disorders// Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Feb; 51(2)
  10. Luby J, Heffelfinger A, Mrakotsky C, Hildebrand T. (1999) Preschool Feelings Checklist//St Louis, MO: Washington University
  11. Luby J.L.., Heffelfinger A.K., Mrakotsky C., Brown  K.M., Hessler M. J, Wallis  J. M., Spitznagel E.L. (2003) The Clinical Picture of Depression in Preschool Children// J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 42:3
  12. Luby J.L., Belden A., Sullivan J., Hayen R., McCadney A., and Ed Spitznagel (2009) Shame and guilt in preschool depression: evidence for elevations in self-conscious emotions in depression as early as age 3// Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50:9
  13. Luby, J.L., Si, X., Belden, A., Tandon, M., & Spitznagel, E. (2009). Preschool depression: Homotypic continuity and course over 24 months. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66
  14. Martín V., Granero R., Ezpeleta L. (2014) Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and anxiety disorders in preschoolers//Psicothema, Vol. 26, No. 1.
  15. Rapee R.M., Coplan R.J. (2010) Conceptual relations between anxiety disorder and fearful temperament// New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development,   Issue 127
  16. Rapee R.M. (2014) Preschool Environment and Temperament as Predictors of Social and Nonsocial Anxiety Disorders in Middle Adolescence // Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Volume 53, Issue 3
  17. Sparrow S.S., Cicchetti D. V., &  Balla D. A. (2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Second Edition (Vineland II), Survey Interview Form/Caregiver Rating Form: vonia, MN: Pearson Assessments
  18. Theunissen M.H.C., Vogels A.G.C., de Wolff M.S., Reijneveld S.A. (2013) Characteristics of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Preschool Children// Pediatrics; January 6.

Information About the Authors

Aleksandr M. Kazmin, PhD in Medicine, Professor, Department of Neuro and Pathopsychology of Development, Faculty of Clinical and Special Psychology, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

N. Konovko, Moscow state educational institution combined-type kindergarten №288, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

O. Salnikova, the head of unit, the State educational institution of the city of Moscow Secondary School № 1125, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

E. Tupitsina, graduate, Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia, e-mail:

E. V. Fedina, Moscow state educational institution Combined type kindergarten №1540, educational psychologist, Moscow, e-mail:



Total: 3675
Previous month: 57
Current month: 26


Total: 2499
Previous month: 36
Current month: 9