The Socio-Psychological Portrait of a Modern Student of Pedagogical Training

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Abstract

The article specifies the features of the professional activity of modern teachers; discusses the requirements that the profession imposes on the personality of a teacher; through the prism of content analysis of modern research, the socio-psychological characteristics of a modern student of pedagogical training are described; the factors and conditions for the formation of future teachers are highlighted. The relevance of this study is conditioned by the special attention that is paid to the training of future teachers within the framework of the Year of the Teacher and Mentor, announced by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin in 2023, because modern students studying in pedagogical fields of training will one day become the mentors of the younger generation. Due to this, this study was undertaken. For this purpose, the methods of content analysis, descriptive statistics, comparison, synthesis were used. The research analyzes 235 scientific papers, the depth of scientific research was 11 years, and the sample was 45893 students of pedagogical specializations. The result of the analysis was a description of the socio-psychological portrait of a student studying in pedagogical fields of training.

General Information

Keywords: teacher; socio-psychological portrait; student of pedagogy

Journal rubric: Psychology of Education

Article type: scientific article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/psyedu.2023150401

Funding. The study was carried out within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, № 073-00038-23-01, 08.02.2023

Received: 08.10.2023

Accepted:

For citation: Ulyanina O.A., Yurchuk O.L., Nikiforova E.A., Knisheva T.P., Borisenko E.V. The Socio-Psychological Portrait of a Modern Student of Pedagogical Training [Elektronnyi resurs]. Psychological-Educational Studies, 2023. Vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 3–24. DOI: 10.17759/psyedu.2023150401.

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Introduction

By the decree of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, 2023 has been declared the Year of the Teacher and Mentor. In this regard, special attention is paid to the training of future specialists preparing to become teachers, and later, mentors of the younger generation. As V.V. Rubtsov notes: "The lack of a coordinated vision of the professional community of teachers, teaching staff of pedagogical faculties of universities and citizens of the Russian Federation in regards to the portrait of a modern teacher and his professional qualities can be overcome within the framework of the implementation of a comprehensive project to modernize pedagogical education. Conducting a study on the professional identity of a teacher will make it possible to draw up a portrait of the modern teacher and determine his/her main ideas of interaction with the participants of educational relations" [37].

In this regard, the study of the features of the professional activity of modern teachers; the requirements that the profession imposes on the competencies of graduates; the socio-psychological portrait of the modern student of the pedagogical field of training; factors and conditions of the formation of future teachers seems to be relevant and in demand. Studenthood is a special period of the professional training and the professional formation of a future specialist, during which learning acquires personal meaning and reveals the prospects for the development of inner potential. Over the past decades, domestic science has accumulated a significant amount of knowledge on the study of the young people studying in the higher education institutions of the country.

Methods and Techniques

The research conducted by the staff of the Federal Coordination Center for the Provision of Psychological Services in the Education System of the Russian Federation (hereinafter - FCC) is aimed at studying the socio-psychological characteristics of student youth studying in pedagogical specializations in higher education institutions of the Russian Federation.  For this purpose, we analyzed scientific works devoted to the study of young people studying in Russian universities. From the total number of publications, the scientific works of authors of psychological, pedagogical and social fields, peer-reviewed and corresponding to the criteria of scientificity, were selected, all the reviewed works are placed in open access in the scientific electronic library - elibrary.ru, on the PsyJournals.ru psychological publications portal, the depth of scientific research was 11 years (period of publications - 2012-2023), as in this period there was an increase in the scientific interest in pedagogical specializations.

To implement the scientific research for works devoted to the study of the socio-psychological characteristics of students, the components of the socio-psychological structure of personality were determined:

  1. Socio-psychological characteristics related to cognitive, emotional, behavioral, motivational, value and meaning spheres of personality, the experience of psychological security and well-being; and understood under socio-psychological characteristics is a set of personal qualities describing the social abilities of the personality, its social position.
  2. Competencies displayed by the personality in social relations: communicative, conflicting, anti-crisis, socio-psychological.

The total sample size was 45893 students of pedagogical specializations studying in 59 universities (including all 34 universities subordinate to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation). The participants were students of higher education organizations of the Russian Federation – in bachelor programs (90.5% of the total number of participants) and in master's programs (9.5%). The age of bachelor’s participants was 17-28 years old (1-5 courses), and the age of master’s participants was 19-40 years old (1-2 courses) (Table 1).

Table 1. Number of Students who Participated in the Reviewed Studies (N=45893)

Level of Education

Number of Students of Pedagogical Universities

Number of Students of Non-Pedagogical Universities

MSUPE

Total Number

Bachelor

35262

5542

1061

41523

Master

660

797

165

1622

Combined Sample (Bachelor, Master)

2406

     

Total

     

45893

Two groups of studies were singled out:

  1. with the participation of students of pedagogical educational organizations of higher education in any fields of training (including students of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Moscow State University of Psychology & Education");
  2. with the participation of students of educational organizations of higher education, not included in the list of educational organizations subordinated to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, in the "Pedagogical Education" field of training.

To achieve the goal of the study, we used the method of content analysis (determining the frequency of the occurrence of such semantic units as "student", "teacher", etc., in the scientific works selected for primary analysis), methods of descriptive statistics (tabular presentation of the obtained results, including quantitative indicators of content analysis), the method of comparison (comparison of research results for each block describing one of the components of the socio-psychological structure of personality), the method of synthesis (using the highlighted socio-psychological characteristics and competencies of a teacher to describe the socio-psychological portrait of a modern student, future teacher).

The conducted content analysis by type of publication (Table 2) showed that the main number of topics devoted to students is found in scientific articles (9489 publications) and conference proceedings (9065 publications) presented on the elibrary.ru portal from 1975 to 2023.

Table 2. Types of Publications on the elibrary.ru Portal (1975-2023) with the Word "Student" Included in their Subject Matter (N=20452)

Types of publications on the elibrary.ru portal

Amount

Scientific journal article

9489

Article in the conference proceedings

9065

Article in a collection of articles

519

Article in a journal on the conference proceedings

364

Conference abstract

272

Textbook

238

Review article in a journal

135

Monograph

69

Book chapter

63

Journal article – miscellaneuous

52

Collection of conference proceedings

50

Short message in journal

33

Methodological guidelines

20

Journal Abstract

17

Collection of conference abstracts

15

Journal article - person

10

Report on R&D

10

Critical review in a journal

8

Collection of articles

6

Journal based on a scientific report

4

Dictionary or reference book

4

Dissertation

4

Dissertation abstract

3

Collective monograph

1

Brochure

1

 

Socio-Psychological Characteristics of Modern Student Youth Studying in Pedagogical Universities

The empirical studies reviewed in the course of the analysis allow us to conclude that there is a variety of the socio-psychological characteristics of students of scientific interest. The professional mentality of students during the period of university education varies depending on the course of study. A strong interest in the opinion of the group, expressed motivation for communication are revealed in 1st year students. From the first to the fourth year of study, the interest in learning activities increases, in the fifth year - in professional activities. The majority of students are oriented to the future. The modern student is characterized by an average level of memory and creativity development, an average level of the formation of critical thinking [16]. The realization of oneself in the profession is mainly associated with the change of motivational and value attitudes to educational and professional activities [5; 17; 20].

Some students have predominant external motives, but there are students who have a stable system of internal motivation [21; 26; 27; 34]. Students are equally oriented towards achieving success or avoiding failure. At the same time, there is an uncertainty in their psychological and pedagogical knowledge and anxiety related to this, a difficulty in applying theoretical knowledge in practice [39; 49].

As individual priorities and normative ideals of the modern student, the aspiration towards independence and the desire to get maximum enjoyment from life are noted [43; 46]. Self-perceptions are based on personal freedom, the readiness to build their lives on the basis of their own meanings in the absence of an aspiration for the development of creative individuality [23]. The development of professional perceptions is significantly slowed down as a result of the impact of negative emotional states arising during the course of educational and professional activities [35]. The majority of students are characterized by an increased level of personal anxiety with the predominance of the psychological defense mechanisms of compensation and denial. Situational anxiety is mainly manifested at an average level, indicating an adequate perception of current events [11; 38].

The priority group of values is health, love, the happiness of others, friends and family, establishing relationships and communication. To achieve the values-goals, students are ready to responsibly approach the fulfillment of professional duties, while maintaining control over their emotional manifestations in interactions with other people. The values of communication, personal life and spiritual satisfaction are inherent in the majority of participants. It is important to note that the priority value in many of the reviewed studies is self-development, the value of achievement is assessed above material status. The level of motivation towards research activity in the majority of students is expressed at an average level [1; 4; 28; 47].

For future teachers at the beginning of their professional training it is most important to find self-expression in interaction with other people. The importance of identifying oneself as a future teacher, a future professional, is low. Creativity and work as a type of employment often occupy the last places in the system of values of a modern student. Enrolling in a pedagogical university, students do not encourage themselves with the prospect of high earnings [1; 30; 31].

In the presence of a pronounced perfectionism directed at oneself, most students are ready to take responsibility for their actions, considering achievements as a result of their efforts, skills, abilities and qualities. Students' desire for self-control is not sufficiently reflected in their ability to overcome difficulties, understand and master coping strategies, manage their emotions in a situation of stress [2; 29].

The process of learning in a pedagogical university can contribute to the development of students' emotional intelligence, a readiness to understand other people, to sympathize and empathize with them, to exert a positive influence on them, while being realized as a professional. The emotional-psychological climate, the mood and interaction with the participants of the educational process, the authority of teachers, the democratic nature of communication, etc. have a significant impact on the satisfaction with training and the safety of the educational environment in the training of a future teacher. [15; 44].

Students demonstrate a readiness to defend their position, strategies of competition and compromise are used more often. Sometimes a number of intolerant attitudes can contribute to the emergence and escalation of conflict [48].

The preservation of psychological health is an important aspect of the life of a pedagogical worker, most often it is understood as possession of self-regulation skills and a possession of psychological literacy [32]. A special role in achieving set goals and the effectiveness of professional activity of a future specialist is played by the ability to navigate in situations of interpersonal communication, to choose the right ways and approaches towards interaction, taking into account the characteristics of the personality of another person. Students and young teachers, beginning their professional activity, experience difficulties with nervousness and anxiety at lessons, with fears of making a mistake. Half of the students experience difficulties in preparing and conducting classes, they do not feel the support of the team and continuity [8; 12; 25]. More often students are ready to be responsible for their own actions and decisions, but they do not always understand the responsibility for the participation in the lives of other people and the country as a whole [19].

Only a part of students realizes the significance of the organization of pedagogical interaction for the emotional and psychological state of students, have a personal need in the implementation of pedagogical interaction, master most of the modern pedagogical technologies, show initiative [13]. Professional readiness to interact with a group of children is manifested in students who have experience in mentoring or volunteering. Students with mentoring experience are more often ready to work with children with special educational needs, children from disadvantaged/asocial families and various subcultures. However, regardless of the presence of such experience, students are less willing to work with children left without parental care, children of foreign citizens and forced migrants. The study of students' readiness for volunteer activity has allowed us to conclude that psychology students demonstrate empathy, altruism and a motivation to help others more pronouncedly, which directly affects the professional qualities of future specialists [33; 36].

Thus, various socio-psychological characteristics of students studying in pedagogical universities are of scientific interest.

Socio-Psychological Characteristics of Modern Student Youth Studying in Non-Pedagogical Universities in Pedagogical Training Specializations

The study of students-teachers studying in non-pedagogical universities represents a specific sphere of scientific works. On the one hand, there are few such studies and the samples are relatively small. On the other hand, such scientific works touch upon a wide range of problems, both those related to the formation of professional competencies and the development of the value and meaning sphere of personality, the manifestation of behavioral features in various situations. The research was conducted to a greater extent with the participation of bachelor’s students of junior courses.

The study results demonstrated the specificity of the value orientations of students-teachers, the formation of volitional resources, the ability to cope with stressful situations, orientation in the social aspects of pedagogical work. Students choose a happy family life, a financially secure life, cognition, a broadening of horizons, general culture, intellectual development, social recognition and life wisdom as the main values. Future teachers are largely oriented towards tidiness, good manners, diligence, irreconcilability towards shortcomings in themselves and others, responsibility [40].

Also, students have an average or low level of professional and pedagogical reflection, while self-esteem is mostly noted as low or high [7]. The professional aspirations of students-future teachers in all spheres of pedagogical activity are interrelated with the self-assessment of pedagogical abilities [18]. Students' knowledge of the pedagogical and critical thinking of a teacher, its components is rather fragmentary, which affects pedagogical decision-making and the application of knowledge of general patterns to specific pedagogical situations and their evaluation [14].

When entering the teaching profession, students note the importance of maintaining professional mental health, they interpret this concept as a state of well-being in which they realize their professionalism, creative abilities, work effectively and cope with the problems encountered [3]. Also, most students are characterized by a moderate level of situational anxiety and a high level of personal anxiety [9]. Professionally important qualities are predominantly developed at an average level [6].

First-year students are more capable of accepting the values and norms of the group, are inclined towards collectivism, are responsible enough in individual and collective work, but such behavior is dictated not by conscious motivation and needs, but by insecure behavior and personal immaturity [42]. The ability of self-actualization of first-year students-future teachers is low [41].

The motives for choosing the profession are conditioned by the need to interact with other people, the obtaining of special knowledge, the opportunity to realize creative potential, are represented by the need for a pedagogical calling, interest in pedagogical activity, the desire to pass on their knowledge to the next generations, the importance of educating children and youth, which sometimes differs from the motives of students of pedagogical universities [21]. The predominant type of motivation of students-teachers is the avoidance of failure - to avoid low grades at the credit and examination session, to avoid being judged for low academic performance and its consequences, expulsion from the educational organization for this reason. The majority of students express their readiness to start working in their specialization or continue their studies in master's or postgraduate programs [39].

The majority of graduates revealed the formation of a crisis identity, which is expressed in the experiences associated with the search and study of alternatives, trying themselves in different spheres, studying their needs. As the main reasons for this, students name low pay, the low social status of a teacher, the inconsistency of their personal qualities with the reference qualities of a professional [22; 24]. However, the status of the value meaning of self-realization for modern students remains inviolable [10]. The results of the analyzed studies allow us to conclude that the future teacher is characterized by the desire to establish contacts with other people, is able to argue their point of view, but sometimes manipulative techniques of argumentation can be used [45].

Discussion of the Results

A large number of works are devoted to the study of the socio-psychological characteristics of students, so, at the preparatory stage, 16002 publications were selected to study students of pedagogical specializations in various Russian universities. The most frequent participants of the research are students of the 1-2 (junior) bachelor's degree courses, and studies with their participation most often have large sample sizes. Scientific works, where the participants are master's students, are often characterized by small sample sizes, composed of students from several master's programs, sometimes related to different aspects of professional activity (for example, the teaching of a separate subject and the organization of management in the education system), in this case the authors of such works consider the sample homogeneous and do not conduct a comparative analysis between students from different groups. Quite often there are studies aimed at studying the differences between trainees in pedagogical specialties and other fields of training (future doctors, engineers or representatives of high-risk professions, etc.). Another category of scientific works is devoted to the study and comparative analysis of the characteristics of trainees in different areas of pedagogical activity (for example, future teachers of mathematics and educational psychologists), the authors emphasize that the studied qualities are more consistent with the requirements of planned professional activity.

In the case that the participants are simultaneously students from pedagogical universities and universities implementing educational programs in different professional spheres, they are also most often considered as a single group of participants. In this regard, an attempt was made to study the socio-psychological characteristics of each group: those studying in pedagogical higher education institutions (subordinate to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation) and those studying in other educational organizations of higher education, which are under the jurisdiction of other ministries. It can be noted that regardless of the category of research participants, there is a scientific interest in studying and describing such categories as the most significant values of students, the system of motives for future professional activity, the degree of mastering communication skills. A separate group of research in non-pedagogical universities is represented by studies involving the comparisons of students-future teachers and students of other specialties (not related to psychological, pedagogical or teaching activities), and so, these characteristics are not related to the specific goals of teacher training and can be developed in different professionals (creativity, mastery of information technology).

The description and differentiation of the results is most often carried out on the basis of the level of demonstration of the studied attribute - low, average or high. This approach allows not only to interpret the results in accordance with the indicators obtained by the results of psychological diagnostics, but also to determine the areas of psychological support (first of all, in the field of prevention and correctional and developmental work), which can be improved when revealing a low or average level of the qualities necessary for professional development. The sufficiently developed qualities of students can also be used as a personality resource under the stress of professional training. In a situation where the aim of support is to reduce the expression of a trait (e.g., anxiety), high indicators can also point to possible ways of improving psychological work with students.

Findings

  1. The study of the socio-psychological characteristics of students-future teachers is of interest to a large number of educational organizations that train teachers. Thus, all educational organizations subordinated to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation conducted such studies with the participation of their students.
  2. According to the results of the analysis of the socio-psychological characteristics of modern student youth revealed during the course of empirical research, a portrait of a modern student-future teacher has been created, including the description of various spheres of personality (cognitive, emotional, behavioral, motivational, value and meaning), on the basis of which a further improvement of the system of psychological and pedagogical training of future professionals can be carried out.
  3. Since pedagogical training is carried out in different types of educational organizations (pedagogical universities subordinated to the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, educational organizations of higher education, which are under the jurisdiction of other ministries), the socio-psychological characteristics of the two categories of students were described. It is important to note that many studies of the participants in both groups highlight the same "targets" for study: the value and motivational sphere, the level of formation of certain pedagogical qualities (including the level of the formation of labor actions related to the organization of learning and developmental activity in the psychological and pedagogical aspect).
  4. Many studied indicators are expressed in students at an average level, while not being understated, they are still not developed at a high level, which does not reflect all the goals of the pedagogical profile of training.
  5. The allocation of the characteristics expressed at the levels that indicate an insufficient formation of qualities important for the professional, a future teacher, will allow for further work on improving the psychological support of the implementation of pedagogical training, including in the field of educational work.

Conclusion

By the beginning of professional training students already have motivational attitudes, value orientations, ideas about themselves, their profession and professional expectations formed during the process of previous life experience. Some personal qualities undergo changes in the process of mastering professional activity, while others remain unchanged.

Creating a socio-psychological portrait of a modern student-future teacher allows us to improve various aspects of professional training, modernize the educational and professional process in accordance with modern social challenges, and provide psychological and pedagogical support according to the requests and needs of the participants of educational relations.

Based on the results of the analysis of empirical studies devoted to the study of the socio-pedagogical characteristics of modern students, the development and description of a model of the socio-psychological competencies of a teacher, which contributes to the comprehensive development of the system of professional training of future teachers, including the development of their personal professionally significant qualities, mastering socio-psychological competencies, was conducted.

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Information About the Authors

Olga A. Ulyanina, Doctor of Psychology, Associate Professor, Head of the Federal Coordination Center for the Provision of Psychological Services in the Education System of the Russian Federation, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Corresponding member of the RAE, Chief Researcher of the Research Center, Academy of Management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia; Professor of Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Psychology at National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9300-4825, e-mail: ulyaninaoa@mgppu.ru

Olga L. Yurchuk, PhD in Psychology, Head of the Department of Scientific and Methodological Support, Federal Coordination Center for the Provision of Psychological Services in the Education System of the Russian Federation, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-3221-2945, e-mail: yurchukol@mgppu.ru

Ekaterina A. Nikiforova, Lead Analyst of the Department of Scientific and Methodological Support of the Federal Coordination Center for the Provision of Psychological Services in the Education System of the Russian Federation, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0488-6497, e-mail: k.Nikiforova.2014@yandex.ru

Tatiana P. Knisheva, Lead Analyst of the Department of Monitoring and Coordination Psychological Services in the Education System, Federal Coordination Center for the Provision of Psychological Services in the Education System of the Russian Federation, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1518-3490, e-mail: knishevatp@mgppu.ru

Elena V. Borisenko, PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Department of Scientific and Methodological Support, Federal Resource Center for Psychological Service in the Education System, Moscow State University of Psychology & Education, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Psychology of Child and Adolescence, V.P. Serbsky National Medical Research Centre for Psychiatry and Narcology of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8864-1085, e-mail: nutskova@serbsky.ru

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