Факторы риска нарушений пищевого поведения у девочек-подростков неклинической популяции: многомерный подход

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Аннотация

ВВЕДЕНИЕ: Расстройства пищевого поведения (РПП) являются тяжелыми, хроническими и сложными по своей природе психическими заболеваниями, трудно поддающимися лечению. Одним из направлений профилактики РПП является скрининг подростков с целью предупреждения развития клинических форм РПП в группах риска.

ЦЕЛЬ: 1) изучить распространенность риска РПП среди девочек-подростков и сравнить подгруппы высокого и низкого риска; 2) исследовать с помощью многомерного подхода те переменные, которые могут взаимодействовать с чертами темперамента и характера для прогнозирования симптоматики РПП.

МЕТОДЫ: Проведено поперечное наблюдательное исследование на основе самоотчетов неклинической выборки девочек-подростков 12–17 лет (n=298; M=14,77±1,13) г. Рязани. Использовались русскоязычные версии теста ЕАТ-26 и опросник темперамента и характера Клонингера (TCI-R). Был также разработан и применен опросник «Факторы риска РПП». Для проверки значимых модераций использовались регрессионные модели, для проверки значимых медиаций — анализ путей.

РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ: Девочки с риском РПП характеризуются высокой озабоченностью весом и неудовлетворенностью телом, низкой самонаправленностью, повышенным стремлением к новизне и склонностью к избеганию вреда, высокой алекситимией, неверием в свои силы, негативной эмоциональностью и неудовлетворенностью семейными отношениями, низкой самооценкой и тенденцией к повышенному перфекционизму и рискованному поведению. Значимые модерации были получены между следующими факторами риска РПП: (1) недоверие к себе/рискованное поведение и ИМТ; (2) алекситимия/отрицательная эмоциональность/самооценка и готовность к сотрудничеству; (3) негативная эмоциональность/рискованное поведение и трансцендентность «Я». Неудовлетворенность семейными отношениями опосредует связь между самонаправленностью/готовностью к сотрудничеству/трансцендентностью «Я» и риском РПП.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ: Существуют разнообразные взаимовлияния между многочисленными факторами риска и протекторами РПП, которые определяют пути между предикторами и конечным результатом.

Общая информация

Ключевые слова: пищевое поведение, скрининг, девушки-подростки, факторы риска, черты личности, темперамент, характер

Рубрика издания: Исследования

Тип материала: научная статья

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17816/CP6132

Получена: 27.03.2023

Принята в печать:

Для цитаты: Мешкова Т.А., Митина О.В., Александрова Р.В. Факторы риска нарушений пищевого поведения у девочек-подростков неклинической популяции: многомерный подход // Consortium Psychiatricum. 2023. Том 4. № 2. С. 21–39. DOI: 10.17816/CP6132

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Информация об авторах

Мешкова Татьяна Александровна, кандидат психологических наук, заведующая кафедрой дифференциальной психологии и психофизиологии, Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет (ФГБОУ ВО МГППУ), Ведущий научный сотрудник лаборатории возрастной психогенетики ПИ РАО, Москва, Россия, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6018-5006, e-mail: meshkovata@mgppu.ru

Митина Ольга Валентиновна, кандидат психологических наук, доцент, ведущий научный сотрудник лаборатории психологии общения, факультет психологии, Московский государственный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова (ФГБОУ ВО МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова), Москва, Россия, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2237-4404, e-mail: omitina@inbox.ru

Александрова Роза Валерьева, психолог, научно-образовательный центр практической психологии и психологической службы, Рязанский государственный университет имени С.А. Есенина (ФГБОУ ВО РГУ имени С.А. Есенина), Рязань, Россия, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4963-041X, e-mail: rozinca@mail.ru

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