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Рейтинг Science Index РИНЦ 2019

30 место — направление «Психология»

0,404 — показатель журнала в рейтинге SCIENCE INDEX

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Аутизм и нарушения развития

Издатель: Московский государственный психолого-педагогический университет

ISSN (печатная версия): 1994-1617

ISSN (online): 2413-4317

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/autdd

Лицензия: CC BY-NC 4.0

Издается с 2003 года

Периодичность: 4 номера в год

Язык журнала: Русский, английский

Доступ к электронным архивам: открытый

 

ГАМК, дефициты нейротрансмиттера глутамата при аутизме и их нейтрализация как новая гипотеза эффективной стратегии лечения 23

Эль-Ансари А.
PhD, профессор Центральной лаборатории Женского центра научных и медицинских исследований, Университет короля Сауда, Эр-Рияд, Саудовская Аравия
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1404-5248
e-mail: afafkelansary@gmail.com

Аннотация

Расстройства аутистического спектра (РАС) — это нарушения психического развития, характеризующиеся снижением социального взаимодействия и повторяющимся поведением. Механизмы этиологии РАС все еще неизвестны; однако ГАМК-эргической системе уделяется большое внимание в связи с тем, что она обладает потенциалом терапевтической мишени. Основываясь на том факте, что у людей с аутизмом отмечена измененная экспрессия генов, сопутствующая нарушению гематоэнцефалического барьера (ГЭБ) и целостности кишечного барьера, повышенный уровень глутамата в крови и тромбоцитах пациентов с РАС может быть связан с меньшим количеством мозжечковых ГАМК-ергических нейронов, менее активными ГАМК-синтезирующими ферментами и сниженным уровнем ГАМК в мозге. Эксайтотоксичные уровни высвобождения глутамата запускают каскад разрушительных клеточных событий, приводящих к отсроченной гибели нейронов. В соответствии с нашим пониманием эксайтотоксичности глутамата добавки ГАМК теоретически могут быть полезны при лечении определенных фенотипов аутизма. Хотя эффективных и безопасных препаратов, предотвращающих вызванные глутаматом повреждение и гибель клеток, до сих пор не существует, мы надеемся, что благодаря совместным усилиям нам удастся разработать лучшие варианты лечения. В данной статье автор выдвинула гипотезу о том, что использование интегрированной стратегии лечения с применением добавок ГАМК, регуляцией уровня хлорида (Cl-) и магния (Mg2+), добавками витамина D, пробиотиков для усиления экспрессии рецепторов ГАМК-А и глутаматдекарбоксилазы (GAD), а также мемантина для активации транспортеров глутамата и ингибирования NMDA рецепторов, может привести к снижению уровней глутамата, поддержать функционирование рецепторов ГАМК и тем самым воздействовать на повторяющееся поведение, нарушения социального взаимодействия и судорожные при- падки у людей с аутизмом.

Ссылка для цитирования

Финансирование

Этот проект финансировался Национальной программой в области науки, технологий и инноваций (MAARIFAH), Город науки и технологии Короля Абдулазиза, номер гранта: 08-MED 510-02.

Благодарности

Автор благодарит деканат научных исследований и RSSU Университета короля Сауда за их техническую поддержку. Особая благодарность госпоже Рамеса Шафи Бхат, факультет биохимии, Колледж наук, КГУ за ее огромные усилия по улучшению рукописи.

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