Assessment of Speech Development in Senior Preschool Age: The Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Norms



The main goal of the study was to implement subtests of the main neuropsychological test to the development of speech in samples of children 5–7 years old with normative development, and also to collect average indicators for this age in phonemic awareness, active and passive vocabulary, grammatical development (understanding of prepositional and logical-grammatical structures). The study sample consisted of 635 children (311 boys and 324 girls) aged 5–7 years. Children attended senior and preparatory groups of kindergartens in Moscow. The norms for the implementation of tests for four age groups (from 5 to 7 years old with a step of 0,5 years) are presented separately in the article for boys and girls. It was shown that there is a significant increase in the productivity of performing speech tasks in the selected age periods, which indicates the sensitivity of older preschool age to the development of all aspects of speech under consideration. The data obtained will be useful for a wide range of professionals in the field of early childhood education and development.

General Information

Keywords: preschool age, speech development, understanding of logical and grammatical constructions, vocabulary, phonemic awareness

Journal rubric: Methods and Techniques

Article type: scientific article


Funding. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant number 17-29-09112.

For citation: Veraksa A.N., Almazova O.V., Oshchepkova E.S., Bukhalenkova D.A. Assessment of Speech Development in Senior Preschool Age: The Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Norms [Elektronnyi resurs]. Klinicheskaia i spetsial'naia psikhologiia = Clinical Psychology and Special Education, 2021. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 256–282. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2021100313. (In Russ., аbstr. in Engl.)


  1. Akhutina T.V. Neirolingvistika normy [Neurolinguistics norms]. In E.D. Khomskaya, T.V. Akhutina (eds.), Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya pamyati A.R. Luriya. sb. dokl.=International conference in memory of A.R. Luria. Moscow: publ. of RPO, 1998, pp. 289–298. (In Russ.).
  2. Bogomazov G.M. Vozrastnaya fonologiya (dvuhurovnevaya fonologicheskaya sistema i ee rol' v formirovanii chut'ya yazyka i gramotnosti uchashchihsya 1-6 klassov) [Age phonology (a two-level phonological system and its role in the formation of a sense of language and literacy of students in grades 1-6)]. Мoscow; Yaroslavl’: Redmer, 2005. 320 p. (In Russ.).
  3. Vygotskii L.S. Myshlenie i rech' [Thinking and speaking]. Moscow: Labirint, 1999. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  4. Gvozdev A.N. Formirovanie u rebenka grammaticheskogo stroya russkogo yazyka [Formation of the grammatical structure of the Russian language in a child], ch. 2. Moscow: publ. of APN RSFSR, 1949. 84 p. (In Russ.).
  5. Glozman Zh.M. Neiropsikhologicheskoe obsledovanie: kachestvennaya i kolichestvennaya otsenka dannykh [Neuropsychological examination: qualitative and quantitative assessment of data]. Moscow: Smysl, 2012. 264 p. (In Russ.).
  6. Dobrova G.R. Variativnost' rechevogo razvitiya detei [The variability of speech development in children]. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskoi kul'tury, 2018. 264 p. (In Russ.).
  7. Kapustin S.A. Kriterii normal'noi i anomal'noi lichnosti v psikhoterapii i psikhologicheskom konsul'tirovanii [Criteria for normal and abnormal personality in psychotherapy and psychological counseling]. Moscow: Kogito-tsentr, 2014. 176 p. (In Russ.).
  8. Kornev A.N. Osnovy logopatologii detskogo vozrasta: klinicheskie i psikhologicheskie aspekty. [Fundamentals of speech pathology in childhood: clinical and psychological aspects]. Saint-Petersburg: Rech', 2006. 380 p. (In Russ.).
  9. Levina R.E. Narusheniya rechi i pis'ma u detei: Izbrannye Trudy [Speech and writing disorders in children]. Moscow: publ. of ARKTI, 2005. 178 p. (In Russ.).
  10. Lisina M.I. Formirovanie lichnosti rebenka v obshchenii [Formation of the child's personality in communication]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter, 2009. 320 p. (In Russ.).
  11. Luriya A.R. Vysshie korkovye funktsii i ikh narushenie pri lokal'nykh porazheniyakh mozga [Higher cortical functions and their impairment in local brain lesions]. Moscow: publ. of MSU, 1962. 431 p. (In Russ.).
  12. Luriya A.R. Pis'mo i rech': Neiropsikhologicheskie issledovaniya [Writing and Speaking: Neuropsychological Research]. Moscow: Akademiya, 2002. 352 p. (In Russ.).
  13. Metody neiropsikhologicheskogo obsledovaniya detei 6-9 let [Methods of neuropsychological examination of children 6-9 years old]. T.V. Akhutina (ed.). Moscow: V. Sekachev, 2016. 280 p. (In Russ.).
  14. Metody obsledovaniya rechi detei: Posobie po diagnostike rechevykh narushenii [Methods for examining the speech of children: A guide for the diagnosis of speech disorders]. G.V. Chirkina (ed.). Moscow: publ. of ARKTI, 2003. 239 p. (In Russ.).
  15. Neiropsikhologicheskaya diagnostika. Klassicheskie stimul'nye materialy [Neuropsychological diagnostics. Classic incentive materials]. E.Yu. Balashova, M.S. Kovyazina (eds.). Moscow: Genezis, 2010. (In Russ.).
  16. Oshchepkova E.S., Bukhalenkova D.A., Yakupova V.A. Razvitie svyaznoi ustnoi rechi v starshem doshkol'nom vozraste [The development of coherent oral speech in older preschool age]. Sovremennoe doshkol'noe obrazovanie: teoriya i praktika=Modern Preschool Education: Theory and Practice, 2020, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 32–39. DOI: 10.24411/1997-9657- 2020-10072 (In Russ.).
  17. Razvitie rechi detei doshkol'nogo vozrasta: Posobie dlya vospitatelya detskogo sada [Speech Development for Preschool Children: A Guide for a Kindergarten Teacher], 3rd ed. F.A. Sokhina (ed.). Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1984. 223 p. (In Russ.).
  18. Reformatskii A.A. Vvedenie v yazykovedenie [Introduction to linguistics]. Moscow: Aspekt Press, 2017. 536 p. (In Russ.).
  19. Rzhanova I.E., Alekseeva O.S., Fominykh A.Ya. Polovye razlichiya po pokazatelyam kognitivnoi sfery u detei doshkol'nogo i mladshego shkol'nogo vozrasta [Sex differences in cognitive indicators in preschool and primary school children]. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta=Moscow University Bulletin, 2020, no. 2, pp. 141–157. DOI: 10.11621/ vsp.2020.02.07. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).
  20. Ushakova O.S. Razvitie rechi doshkol'nikov [Speech development of preschoolers]. Moscow: Publ. of Institute of Psychotherapy, 2001. 173 p. (In Russ.).
  21. Fotekova T.A. Testovaya metodika diagnostiki ustnoi rechi mladshikh shkol'nikov [Test method for the diagnosis of oral speech in primary schoolchildren]. Moscow: Airis- press, 2007. 84 p. (In Russ.).
  22. Tsvetkova L.S., Akhutina T.V, Pylaeva N.M. Metodika otsenki rechi pri afazii [Methodology for assessing speech in aphasia]. Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1981. 67p.
  23. Tseitlin S.N. Yazyk i rebenok: Lingvistika detskoi rechi [Language and the child: Linguistics of children's speech]. Moscow: VLADOS, 2000. 240 p. (In Russ.).
  24. El'konin D.B. Razvitie rechi v doshkol'nom vozraste [Speech development in preschool age]. Moscow: Publ. of Akademii pedagogicheskikh nauk RSFSR, 1958. 116 p. (In Russ.).
  25. El'konin D. B. Razvitie ustnoi i pis'mennoi rechi uchashchikhsya [Development of oral and written speech of students]. V.V. Davydova, T.A. Nezhnova (eds.). Moscow: INTOR, 1998. 112 p. (In Russ.).
  26. Akinina Y., Malyutina S., Ivanova M. et al. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs. Behavior Research Methods, 2015, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 691–707 DOI: 10.3758/s13428-014-0492-9
  27. Bankson N.W., Mentis М., Jagielko J.R. BELT-3: Bankson Expressive Language Test. 3rd Edition. Austin, TX: ProEd., 2018. 260 p.
  28. Bates E., Bretherton I., Snyder L. From first words to grammar: individual differences and dissociable mechanisms. New York: C.U.P., 1988. 264 p.
  29. Bates E., Thai D., Marchman V. Symbols and syntax: A Darwinian approach to language development. In N. Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Schiefelbusch et al. (eds.), Biological and Behavioral Determinants of Language Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991. P. 39-76
  30. Beitchman J.H., Wilson B., Brownlie E.B. et al. Long-term consistency in speech/language profiles: developmental and academic outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 804–814 DOI:10.1097/00004583-199606000-00021
  31. De Agostini M., Metz-Lutz M.-N., Van Hout A. et al. Batterie d'évaluation du langage oral de l'enfant aphasique (ELOLA): standardisation française (4–12 ans) [Oral language evaluation battery of aphasic children: A French standardization]. Revue de Neuropsychologie, 1998, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 319–367 (In French, abstr. in Engl.).
  32. Dunn L.M., Dunn D.M. PPVT-4: Peabody picture vocabulary test. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments, 2007. 150 p. DOI: 10.1037/t15144-000
  33. Dunn L.M., Dunn D.M., Whetton Ch. et al. British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd ed.). Windsor: NFER-Nelson, 1997. 320 p.
  34. Fodor J.A. The language of thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975. 214 p.
  35. Hudson J. A., Shapiro, L. R. From knowing to telling: The development of children's scripts, stories, and personal narratives. In A. McCabe, C. Peterson (eds.), Developing Narrative Structure. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991, pp. 89–136.
  36. Jakobson R. Child language, aphasia, and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1968. 98 p. DOI: 10.1515/9783111353562
  37. Katz J.J. Semantic theory. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. 230 p.
  38. Marini A., Marotta L., Bulgheroni S. et al. Batteria per la valutazione del linguaggio in bambini dai 4 ai 12 anni. Firenze: Giunti O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali, 2014. 180 p. (In Italian).
  39. Mather N., Jaffe L.E. Woodcock-Johnson IV: reports, recommendations, and strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2016. 276 p.
  40. McGrew K.S., LaForte E.M., Schrank F.A. Technical Manual. Woodcock- Johnson IV. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside, 2014. 280 p.
  41. Raven J., Raven J.C., Court J.H. Manual for Raven’s progressive matrices and vocabulary scales. Section 2: The coloured progressive matrices. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press, 1998. 160 p.
  42. Veraksa A., Bukhalenkova D., Kartushina N. et al. The relationship between executive functions and language production in 5–6-year-old children: Insights from working memory and storytelling. Behavioral Sciences, 2020, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 52–63. DOI: 10.3390/bs10020052
  43. Vlasova R.M. A normative set of “Object-and-Action” pictures. The Russian Journal of Cognitive Science, 2016, vol. 3, pp. 34–53.
  44. Wallace G., Hammill D.D. CREVT-3: Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test. 3rd ed. Austin, TX: ProEd, 2013. 380p.

Information About the Authors

Aleksandr N. Veraksa, Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Head of the Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vice-Director of Psychological Institute, Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Olga V. Almazova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Developmental Psychology Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Ekaterina S. Oshchepkova, PhD in Philology, Researcher, Department of Psychology of Education and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:

Daria A. Bukhalenkova, PhD in Psychology, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy, Faculty of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Researcher, Laboratory of Child Psychology and Digital Socialization, Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education, Moscow, Russia, ORCID:, e-mail:



Total: 4844
Previous month: 181
Current month: 82


Total: 1015
Previous month: 29
Current month: 9