Дистанционное обучение учителей технике “Power Cards” в контексте формирования социальных навыков у учащихся с расстройством аутистического спектра

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Аннотация

Дефицит социальных навыков является одной из основных характеристик людей с расстройствами аутистического спектра. Сложности социального взаимодействия у этой группы людей не могут естественным образом уменьшаться или исчезать со временем. Напротив, они становятся более выраженными, если не проводить соответствующие мероприятия по развитию социальной компетентности. Поэтому данное исследование, выполненное в рамках «претест–посттест» дизайна, посвящено оценке эффективности дистанционного обучения (посредством тренинга поведенческих навыков и коучинга) в развитии у педагогов-психологов навыков разработки стимульного материала и применения техники “Power Card”. В исследовании также изучалось влияние техники “Power Card” на развитие социальных навыков у учеников с расстройством аутистического спектра, а именно практик благодарности — например, умения выражать благодарность при получении запрашиваемого предмета. В исследовании приняли участие три педагога-психолога, работающие в турецкой системе специального образования, и трое их учеников с расстройством аутистического спектра, обучающиеся в специальной образовательной школе. С помощью контрольных списков (например, Steps for Developing Scripts and Power Cards) динамически оценивалась успешность освоения учителями процедур разработки и внедрения сценариев для Power Card. Для оценки успешности освоения учащимися практик благодарности был проведен качественный анализ. Дистанционное обучение поведенческим навыкам и коучинг были эффективны в приобретении, поддержании и генерализации навыков использования учителями процедуры Power Card, а сам метод оказался эффективным инструментом для обучения детей с расстройствами аутистического спектра навыкам выражения благодарности. Учащиеся сохранили приобретенные навыки благодарения и проявляли их через 2 и 4 недели после вмешательства, а также были способны экстраполировать их на аналогичные социальные ситуации. По результатам исследования учителя высоко оценили: а) целесообразность использования техники “Power Cards”; б) приемлемость дистанционного формата для обучения необходимым навыкам и коучинга; в) социальную значимость целевых навыков, приобретенных учащимися. В конце статьи обсуждаются методологические ограничения (например, узкая направленность на социальные навыки и сбор данных о социальной валидности через суждения участников) и перспективы исследования.

Общая информация

Ключевые слова: Power Cards, метод, расстройство аутистического спектра, дистанционное обучение, психологический тренинг, обучение поведенческим навыкам, коучинг

Рубрика издания: Прикладные исследования

Тип материала: научная статья

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17759/cpse.2023120210

Получена: 24.01.2023

Принята в печать:

Для цитаты: Олджай С., Сарал Д. Дистанционное обучение учителей технике “Power Cards” в контексте формирования социальных навыков у учащихся с расстройством аутистического спектра [Электронный ресурс] // Клиническая и специальная психология. 2023. Том 12. № 2. С. 215–242. DOI: 10.17759/cpse.2023120210

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Информация об авторах

Олджай Серай, PhD, доцент кафедры специального образования, Университет Хаджеттепе, Анкара, Турция, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5007-7466, e-mail: solcaygul@gmail.com

Сарал Динчер, магистр (прикладной анализ поведения при аутизме), научный ассистент, факультет специального образования, Университет Хаджеттепе, Анкара, Турция, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0795-255X, e-mail: dincersaral@hacettepe.edu.tr

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